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Weavertown One Room School, Bird-in-Hand, Pennsylvania

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Weavertown One Room School, Bird-in-Hand, Pennsylvania
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Image by Ken Lund
Bird-in-Hand, Pennsylvania is an unincorporated community and census-designated place with parts lying in East Lampeter Township, and Upper Leacock Township, Lancaster County in the U.S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The community has a large Amish and Mennonite population. As of the 2010 census, its population was 402.

The earliest settlers of what was to become Bird-in-Hand were Quakers and Swiss Mennonites. James Smith was the first of the Quakers known to have settled in the area, arriving by the year 1715. William and Dorothy McNabb were pioneer landowners and the owners of the original Bird-in-Hand Hotel. The Quakers built a meetinghouse and two-story academy, which stands today, next to the present day Bird-in-Hand fire company.

he community was founded in 1734. The legend of the naming of Bird-in-Hand concerns the time when the Old Philadelphia Pike was surveyed between Lancaster and Philadelphia. According to legend two road surveyors discussed whether they should stay at their present location or go on to the town of Lancaster. One of them supposedly said, "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush," which means it is preferable to have a small but certain advantage than the mere potential of a greater one; and so they stayed. By 1734, road surveyors were making McNabb’s hotel their headquarters rather than returning to Lancaster every day. The sign in front of the inn is known to have once "portrayed a man with a bird in his hand and a bush nearby, in which two birds were perched," and was known as the Bird-in-Hand Inn. Variations of this sign appear throughout the town today.

The town remained relatively unknown until a musical called Plain and Fancy opened in New York in 1955. The play was set in the village of Bird-in-Hand and is often credited as a catalyst for the boom in Pennsylvania Dutch Country tourism in the mid-twentieth century. The Plain & Fancy Restaurant opened in 1960, and is the oldest "family-style restaurant" in the area. Bird-in-Hand is often named in lists of "delightfully-named towns" in Pennsylvania Dutchland, along with Intercourse, Blue Ball, Lititz, Bareville, Mount Joy and Paradise.

Tourism is very important and many businesses cater specifically to tourists. Many of these businesses have an Amish theme, such as horse and buggy rides and crafts.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird-in-Hand,_Pennsylvania

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_…

Lima…
philadelphia tourism

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@ Philadelphia PA, EUA

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philadelphia tourism

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ji6192 valley forge pa pennsylvania valley forge national historical park splitrail fence

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The audience at Zoltán Balog’ lecture at PISM – 26.01.2015.

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The audience at Zoltán Balog’ lecture at PISM – 26.01.2015.
independence hall

Image by Polish Institute of International Affairs
Family policy instead of immigration is the recipe of the Hungarian government’ success – according to Zoltán Balog, the Minister for Human Resources in the Viktor Orbán government, who was the guest of PISM.

He added this strategy might be useful not only in Hungary, but also in the whole European Union. Its significance rises in the context of EU debate on immigration, after the terrorist attack on the offices of French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo.

Minister Balog recognised the family policy, including the introduction of tax allowances for numerous families, as one of the most important achievements of Fidesz five-year rulling. No less effective, in the view of the PISM guest, is the program of public employment, which has had the effect of significance improvement of the labour market situation (e.g. unemployment reduction), tax revenues increase as well as better integration of the Roma into the labour market.

Moreover, Balog made a reference to decreasing public support for the government and more frequent protests of the Orbán opponents, which he perceived as the protests against the entire political class. Besides, the Minister spoke about the relations with Russia. According to him, dialogue is the key word, both in the relations with Russia and with Ukraine. He confirmed the full support of Orbán’s government for the Ukraine’s independence and the readiness to assist its path toward democracy.

The lecture of the Minister Zoltán Balog, titled: “Values and interests: political philosophy of the Hungarian government”, took place on January 26th 2015 at PISM. It was organized by the Polish Institute of International Affairs and the Embassy of Hungary in Poland. The debate was moderated by Marcin Zaborowski, the Director of PISM.

Photo by Jadwiga Winiarska

For more info go to: www.pism.pl/Wydarzenia/Goscie-PISM/wartosci-i-interesy-fi…

Freer Gallery Corridor
independence hall

Image by Mr.TinDC
Corridor inside the Freer Gallery of Art (1923, Charles Adams Platt), on Independence Avenue, SW, in Washington, DC. I had the place pretty much to myself on my day off yesterday.

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Nice Philadelphia Travel Company photos

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Image from page 106 of “From trail to railway through the Appalachians” (1907)
philadelphia travel company

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Identifier: fromtrailtorailw00brigh
Title: From trail to railway through the Appalachians
Year: 1907 (1900s)
Authors: Brigham, Albert Perry, 1855-1932
Subjects: Atlantic States — Description and travel Ohio River Valley — Description and travel
Publisher: Boston, New York [etc.] Ginn & Company
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation

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tomac which ships can-not pass. The Potomac runs so close to Chesapeakebay that it is only forty miles from Washington acrossto Baltimore. Chesapeake bay is much like Delaware bay and thetidal Hudson river, only it is larger than either. Balti-more is at a greater distance from the open sea thanPhiladelphia is, and Philadelphia is farther inland thanNew York, but each of these cities tried to get as muchof the western trade as it could. The natural way for the men of Baltimore and Alex-andria to go across to the west was up the Potomac 86 THE NATIONAL KOAU 87 river and through its passes in the mountains, l^utbefore they tried this they had settled much of the low,flat land along the Potomac and about the Chesapeakein Virginia and Maryland. This was often called tide-water country, because the beds of the rivers are belowsea level, and the streams are deep enough for boats ofsome size. When the land was first settled and the colonistsfound that they could go almost everywhere by boat,

Text Appearing After Image:
Fig. ;^2- Tollhouse West of Brownsville, Pennsylvania they paid small heed to making roads. They could visittheir neighbors on other plantations and they could loadtheir tobacco and take it to market by the rivers. Manyplantations were beside rivers of such great depth thatsailing vessels bound for London could come up to thefarmers wharf and get his crop of tobacco. In early days the members of the legislature were notalways given so much per mile to pay the stage faresbetween their homes and the capital, but they were 88 FROM TRAIL TO RAILWAY allowed the cost of hiring boats instead. Many ferrieswere needed, and laws about them were made beforerules were laid down for bridges and roads. Severallawmakers at one time would have been fined for theirabsence from the legislature of the colony had they notbeen excused because there was no ferry to carry themover the river which they would have had to cross. Around Annapolis rolling roads were made. Thesewere wide paths made as smooth as p

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Image from page 109 of “The old world : Palestine, Syria, and Asia Minor : travel, incident, description and history” (1869)
philadelphia travel company

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Identifier: oldworldpalestin00free
Title: The old world : Palestine, Syria, and Asia Minor : travel, incident, description and history
Year: 1869 (1860s)
Authors: Freese, Jacob R., 1826-1885
Subjects: Personal Narratives Physicians
Publisher: Philadelphia : J.B. Lippincott & Co.
Contributing Library: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School

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mns,which were probably parts of the temple. Two of thesestand pretty close together, and the Moslems say thatonly those who can pass between these columns everreach heaven. We have considerable sport in trying theexperiment, and find that every one of our company cansqueeze through, except the old sheikh (our conductor),who, being very corpulent, will not try it. 92 The Old World—Palestine. But the part which interests us most is the immensesubterranean archways, underneath the surface of theground not now built upon. We have some difficulty ingetting down to these through a hole near the outer wall,but, once here, the view is grand and imposing—archafter arch, and passage-way after passage-way can be seenfor a great distance. That these were a part of the oldtemple we have no doubt whatever. The Golden Gateis also shown, but its identity is very questionable. Thus we finish our description of Jerusalem and itssurroundings, and to-morrow we shall start for the Jordanand Dead Sea.

Text Appearing After Image:
CHAPTER V. OFF FOR THE JORDAN AND DEAD SEA. T S everything ready for a start, Mohammed? 1 Ready, sir. Have you seen that the canteen and tents are properlypacked and well secured on the baggage mules, and arethey, too, ready to start? Everything is ready, sir. Then lead off for the Jordan by the way of Bethanyand Jericho. Mohammed is a faithful servant and a passably gooddragoman when he is in his right mind ; but he willdrink to excess when he gets in coffee-shops and amonghis fellow-dragomen, and only yesterday we were obligedto give him a severe horse-whipping, in front of our owntent, and in the presence of other dragomen and scoresof lookers-on, because, being drunk, he was insolent andrefused to obey us. It was something new in Syria to see a Howajji floghis own dragoman, and the lookers-on seemed astoundedand paralyzed at the sight, but it taught him and them alesson which they will not soon forget, viz. : that anAmerican traveler will not take insolence nor suffer dis-obedienc

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Nice Philadelphia Travel Company photos

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Image from page 361 of “Bird lore” (1899)
philadelphia travel company

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Identifier: birdlore131911nati
Title: Bird lore
Year: 1899 (1890s)
Authors: National Committee of the Audubon Societies of America National Association of Audubon Societies for the Protection of Wild Birds and Animals National Audubon Society
Subjects: Birds Birds Ornithology
Publisher: New York City : Macmillan Co.
Contributing Library: Smithsonian Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Biodiversity Heritage Library

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S The Warblers of North America Full biographies of our most beautiful, most abundant, and least-known birds. In describing these dainty, fascinating sprites of thetree-tops Mr. Chapman has here drawn on his own great wealth ofmaterial and has had the cooperation of many other ornithologists.Illustrated with colored plates of every species, by Fuertcs andHorsfall, and by photographs of nests and eggs. Bids fair to remain an authority for a long time.-—The Nation. Imperial 8vo. Cloth, .00 net D. APPLETON & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS29-35 W. 32d St., New York City J. HORACE MCFa No one can read this book without feeling a closer touch offriendship with the forms of bird-life about him.—A^^ou York Times Camps and Cruises OF AN Ornithologist The record of Mr. Chapmans experiences during theeight years in which he was gathering material for the now-famous habitat groups of birds at the American Museumof Natural History. Emphatically themost noteworthy oflate bird books. — The Oologist

Text Appearing After Image:
A notable contri-bution to bird-lore.— The Dial It is hardly possible to exaggerate the attraction which thisvolume of adventure and travel, by an ornithologist superbly equippedfor his work, must have for the hrdi-ovex.^—Philadelphia Press. By Frank M. Chapman Curator of Ornithology of the AmericanMuseum of Natural History JVith 2^0 Photographs from Nature hy the Author.8vo. cloth, gilt top, uncut edges. In a box, -00 net. Published by D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 29 W. 32nd St., New York

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Image from page 206 of “The Daily union history of Atlantic City and County, New Jersey : containing sketches of the past and present of Atlantic City and County” (1900)
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Identifier: dailyunionhistor00inhall
Title: The Daily union history of Atlantic City and County, New Jersey : containing sketches of the past and present of Atlantic City and County
Year: 1900 (1900s)
Authors: Hall, John F., fl. 1899-1900. cn
Subjects:
Publisher: Atlantic City, N.J. : Daily Union Printing Co.
Contributing Library: Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center
Digitizing Sponsor: Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center

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ide undermined and wrecked the building before it was finished, and the lotwhich cost ,000, in 1877, was sold fifteen years later for ,000. It has sincebeen sold for ,000. and is probably valued at twice that sum now. The company met with reverses and passed into the hands of Charles R. Col-well, as Receiver, July 12, 1878. One year later it went into the hands of WilliamH. Gatzmer and G. B. Linderman, trustees for the mortgage bondholders. In September, 1883, the road was sold in foreclosure proceedings to GeorgeR. Kearcher for the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company, which hassince operated it. It was made a standard gauge, double-track line and giventhe finest roadbed and rolling stock. It has maintained its popularity and eachyear increased its business. While not the financial success at first that its projectors anticipated, theNarrow Gauge enterprise popularized travel to the seashore and gave AtlanticCity an impetus of ])ri)S]ierity that has continued ever since.

Text Appearing After Image:
THE FIRST BOARDWALK. ^be TKHest 3er9ev> IRailroab. <tt^OR twenty-three years. 1854 to 1877, Atlantic City had but one sinj^le trackJ* railroad connecting with the outside world. That railroad had cost nearlydouble the estimated amount and had ruined, financially, all of its originalincorporators except Gen. Enoch Doughty, of Abscccin. and he was a li)scr inthe sum of fifty thousand dollars. Fortunately, the Canulen and Atlantic LandCompany pledged its valuable holdings to secure the notes and obligations of therailroad, so as to continue its operation and sustain the enterprise. When the Narrow Gauge was built, in 1877,the permanent population of Atlantic City wasabout 3,000. The reduction of fifty per cent, in thetarifif schedule, increased number of trains andquicker time, resulted in a general rush to the sea-shore. Hotels and boarding houses were too fewand too small for the demands upon them. is-itors, at times, walked the streets all night or sleptin chairs on porches or

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28_second_attempt_actually_at_Dam_No_4
philadelphia travel company

Image by Jim Surkamp

C&O Canal – A Tenuous Pawn (2) With Author Timothy R. Snyder by Jim Surkamp
civilwarscholars.com/?p=12453
9826 words

C&O Canal – A Tenuous Pawn (2) With Author Timothy R. Snyder by Jim Surkamp
TRT: 19:16
youtu.be/mTgG-dfOhCI

Made possible with the generous support of American Public University System, providing an affordable, quality, online education. The video and post do not reflect any modern-day policies or positions of American Public University System, and their content is intended to encourage discussion and better understanding of the past. More . . . apus.edu

1_Burning_Boats_Timothy_Snyder_FINAL

The Burning Boats 1861-1865 Pt. 2 With Author Timothy R. Snyder

2_We_Learn

We learn that upwards of one hundred boats lying at Williamsport and other points below and above, which have been prevented from passing down with their freight by the rebel troops at Harper’s Ferry; consequently all business upon the Canal has been suspended, and thousands directly and indirectly interested in its trade and commerce thrown out of employment. – Herald Torch Light, June 5, 1861.

3_In_Late_May_1861_jpg

In late May, 1861, Thomas Jonathan Jackson was replaced in command of Harper’s Ferry by Joseph E. Johnston. Confederates probably wanted a calmer head, an older man, a wiser man. Jackson had engaged in a bunch of provocative acts at a time when the Confederates were trying to woo Maryland to their cause. Ironically, just as Johnston took command, just a week earlier or so, the Maryland General Assembly adjourned. They took no steps towards secession, and then Union troops invaded northern Virginia, opposite Washington, D.C. on May 28th, occupying Alexandria, Arlington – the high ground opposite Washington, D.C. As a result, Johnston will have a free reign. It’s evident a shooting war is on. Maryland was taking no immediate steps towards secession. So Johnston then would take steps to destroy both the B and O railroad and the C&O canal, prior to his evacuating Harper’s Ferry. His troops attack the canal opposite Harper’s Ferry and burned over twenty-five canal boats and damaged a couple of locks. He also sent parties out to attempt to breach Dams No. 4 and 5 near Williamsport. They were unsuccessful, but these were first attempts to attack those dams.

4_Information_reached_here

Information reached here that an attempt was made by the Virginia rebels, on Saturday (June 9) and Sunday (June 10) nights last, to destroy Dams No. 4 and 5 on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. At No. 5 they were met by the brave Guards of Clear Spring, who, after considerable skirmishing, succeeded in repulsing them, killing one of their men. The rebels endeavored to blow up the dam by means of a blast, for which purpose they had procured four kegs of powder, but were driven off before they were able to injure it. At Dam No. 4 some damage was done to the Canal, but we learn none to the Dam itself. It is clearly the duty of every loyal citizen in the county to rally to the defence and protection of the property of the Canal Company. – The Herald of Freedom and Torch Light, June 12, 1861.

5_During_that_attack_on_the_dams

During that attack on the Dams, Redmond Burke, an Irishman who later became a bushwhacker and courier for Confederate Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and was killed in 1862 by Federal troops in Shepherdstown – he was every night, using a dark lantern was visiting Dam No. 4 with two of his sons and they worked at drilling for dynamite holes in the rockbed beneath the Dam, a Dam he once built with others. – Philadelphia Public Ledger June 14, 1861. Most people are more aware of Jackson’s later attempts to disable the dams in December of 1861. After the Confederates evacuated, canal traffic was resumed in late August, 1861. They did try to harass canal traffic.

6_Turner_Ashby_the_Confederate_cavalryman

In fact, Turner Ashby, the Confederate cavalryman, rode to Richmond, offering to lead an expedition to break the canal. And a staff officer in Richmond wrote that it as "a cherished object” of the Confederate government for the B andO railroad and the C&O canal both to have been severed or disabled. Monday-Wednesday – September 9-11, 1861: Shepherdstown/Bridgeport Lock No. 38.

7_Harry_Gilmore_wrote_while_encamped

Confederaate cavalryman Harry Gilmore wrote: While encamped near Morgan’s Spring, parties, of which I was generally one, would be sent frequently to the Potomac for the purpose of blockading the canal on the Maryland side, by which immense supplies of coal and provisions were brought to the capital. We would go down before daylight, conceal ourselves behind rocks or trees, or in some small building, and, when the sun was up, not a soldier or boat could pass without our taking a crack at them, and generally with effect, for we were all good shots. We became a perfect pest to them, and many an effort was made in vain to dislodge us; but wo could not be found, for every day we were in a new spot, miles apart. Friday-Sunday – September 13-15, 1861: Shepherdstown, Va.

8_A_Brisk_Skirmish

A Brisk Skirmish — We learn that a spirited skirmish took place on Friday last (Sept. 13), between the rebels at Shepherdstown, and the Federal troops stationed opposite the town on the Maryland side. The troops fired at each other across the river first with small arms, and then with cannon. When the rebels commenced firing with a cannon, our troops procured two old six pounders from Sharpsburg, and planted them on the borders of the river, and returned the fire with vigor, sending balls and other missiles into the town, which soon put the enemy to flight, and terminated the engagement. On our side a tow boy on the canal was killed, but none of the troops were hurt; on theirs it is believed that several were killed and wounded. – The Herald of Freedom and Torch Light, September 18, 1861.

9_Major_Parker_Gould

Major J. Parker Gould of the 13th Massachusetts in Sharpsburg wrote: There was a skirmish yesterday at Shepherdstown between the rebels and our troops. A canal-boat was passing at the time and 1 boatman was mortally wounded. The Confederates seem to know our weakness in numbers, and are becoming saucy.

10_There_was_serious_flood

There was a serious flood in November that put the canal out of commission; but in December, canal boats began to move again toward Cumberland. Reports were coming that eighty-seven boats had cleared Cumberland and carried 7,613 tons of coal, 633 tons of lumber, cord wood, cooperage, eighty tons of hay and oats –

11_Sandy_Hook_where_at_least_half_load

all heading to Harpers Ferry and Sandy Hook where at least half of that overall load would be loaded on eastbound Baltimore and Ohio cars. And those emptied cars would be heading back up to Cumberland imminently.

12_Stonewall_Jackson_by_this_time_his_name

"Stonewall" Jackson, by this time his name is "Stonewall," (he earned that name at First Manassas, First Bull Run), by this time his headquarters was at Winchester and he sent a number of expeditions to the north to disable Dam No. 5 and wanted to disable Dam No. 4. While the destruction of both dams was important to the Confederates,

13_Dam_No_5_was_Jacksons_first_choice

Dam No. 5 was Jackson’s first choice. Why? Both dams were built logged-cribbed and rock-filled in the 1830s. Dam No. 4’s leakiness had been fixed with new masonry by the spring of 1861. But Dam No. 5 was, not only still leaking and prone to sabotage, but it was just that much

14_further_up_river_away_from_Gen_Banks

further up river away from Federal General Banks’ men further east in Frederick, Maryland. Friday – December 6, 1861: Dam No. 5. Saturday-Monday – December 7-9, 1861: Dam No. 5. The first one was in the first week of December against Dam No. 5. It was led by Turner Ashby, All of them were a failure.

15_The_Union_troops_were_strongly_posted

The Union troops were strongly posted and, of course, they had the icy Potomac River between them. Working conditions were difficult. The Confederates tried to divert water around the Virginia end of the dam. They also tried to cut the wooden cribbing of the dam on the Virginia side of the dam. But the strongly posted Union sharpshooters prevented them from inflicting any damage. Saturday-Sunday – December 7 thru -8 – Federal

16_Col_Samuel_Leonard_turns_the_tables

Col. Samuel Leonard Turns the Tables: Confederate Major Elisha Franklin Paxton of the 27th Va., who arrived at Dam No. 5 on the Virginia side near dusk that Saturday, December 7th, seemed to have his work of dam destruction well under control. With arms fire for cover, for 5 hours his men worked at destroying the Dam in the ice cold water. Col. Samuel Leonard of the 13th Massachusetts saw that his men, armed with short-range smoothbores at Dam No. 5 couldn’t withstand the onslaught from Confederate Rockbridge Artillery Captain William McLaughlin’s six gun battery and the fire of 600 better armed regulars firing from the Virginia side. So Col. Leonard gave new orders, using the nighttime to change things. He replaced the company with another company from Williamsport that had much better Enfield rifled muskets. Leonard switched two companies sending the C company with shorter-range smoothbore rifles from Dam No. 5 to No. 4 and replacing them with Company G at the besieged Dam No. 5. William McLaughlin’s Rockbridge Artillery began early the next morning – Sunday, December 8th – this time, firing boldly right from the brink of the river. But they became surprised to face a barrage of fire that was much more lethal than the day before. They were driven back and after dark they snuck back to retrieve their pieces.

17_Confederate_Paxton_wrote_later

Confederate Paxton, supervising the assault, wrote later: At daybreak Sunday morning our cannon opened fire upon them again, but they were so sheltered in the canal from which in the meantime they had drawn off the water that it was found impossible to dislodge them. As my workmen could not be protected against the enemy’s fire, I found it necessary to abandon the enterprise.

19_Charles_E_Davis_remembered

Charles E. Davis of the 13th Massachusetts remembered the vast difference bertween the Enfield rifled muskets and the smoothbores: Prior to our arrival, this part of the river was protected by troops supplied with the old smooth-bore musket of a very antiquated pattern, with too little power to carry a bullet across the river, so that they were a

20_constant_source_of_ridicule_by_the_enemy

constant source of ridicule by the enemy, who were much better armed, and who amused themselves by coming down to the river daily, and placing the thumb of the right hand to the nose, and the thumb of the left hand to the little finger of the right hand,

21_would_make_rapid_motions_with_the_fingers

would make rapid motions with the fingers, to the great exasperation of the Union men, who were powerless to prevent it. After we were placed there with our Enfield rifles, there was less time spent in arranging their fingers, and more in the use of their feet. Late that Sunday, December 8th,

22_Harry_Gilmore_and_his_friend_Welch
Harry Gilmore and his friend, Welch, try to recover Confederate pieces near the shore.

23_the_enemy_were_all_concealed

The enemy were all concealed behind the rip-rap walls of the canal, and impossible to shell them out. Our men were prevented from limbering and carrying off our pieces by a very hot fire of musketry from the enemy on the other bank; and, when two or three men had been wounded, Colonel Ashby rode up, and told Captain McLaughlin that the guns must be brought away, and also the horses of a lieutenant and sergeant tied near them; but not a man of the battery would volunteer to go after them. I proposed to Welch that we should procure the horses. He agreed, and, without saying a word to anyone, we tied our horses behind the cliff; and crawled to within two hundred yards of the horses and guns, when the enemy opened on us a brisk fire from the canal. Without stopping, we made a dash for the horses, and never probably before were halters unloosed in so short a time. This done, we leaped on them and fled, lying flat on their necks.

24_The_leaden_hail_was_all_around_us

The leaden hail was all around us, but we soon got out of range, and, vaulting on our own, we led the recovered horses back, very much to the amusement of the colonel and the chagrin of the lieutenant and sergeant, when we said, "Gentlemen, here are your horses. Don’t get them into such a tight place again." Welch and I then offered to take our company and bring off the guns; but Captain McLaughlin would not consent, bringing them away himself after night. Soon after Welch and I had recovered the horses, I was lying down in a field, under cover of a knoll, my horse browsing in the bottom, when Colonel Ashby came and informed me that Captain Moore, of the 2d Virginia Infantry, was in a very precarious position in a large mill, and he wished me to take a message to him, which must be done on foot. I took the message and started on this dangerous mission, being obliged, for five hundred yards, to cross in full view of the enemy on the other side of the river. Of course I was in a great hurry to accomplish my task; and, as soon as I got within range of their muskets, I started at full speed across the flat, the balls flying around, and cutting up the sod in a lively manner. Three or four times I halted, and found refuge behind piles of friendly rocks or trees to take breath. At last I reached the mill in safety, and delivered the message, I returned in greater fear than ever, lest I might receive a wound in the back , a soldier’s dread; but I reported all safe to Colonel Ashby, and was fully repaid, by his kind thanks and complimentary speeches.

25_the_storm_that_night_was_terrific
The storm that night was terrific, and the men suffered awfully from cold. One of our

26_officer_had_a_flagon_of_whiskey

officers had a flagon of whisky, and, under the pressing necessities of the case, I stole it from his ambulance and divided it among the field officers. Next morning the officer was in a towering rage about it. A Confederate team crept down to the dam,

27_gathered_at_its_southern_abutment

gathered at its southern abutment with the idea of digging a ditch around the southern end of the dam, so the flowing water would undermine the dam, causing it to collapse. The dam didn’t collapse because the water level dropped quickly after their work, reducing the diverted stream to a trickle.

28_second_attempt_actually_at_Dam_No_4

During the second attempt, it was actually at Dam No. 4, again led by Ashby during the second week of December, it was a failure as well. Wednesday – December 11, 1861: Dam No. 4 (north of Shepherdstown, Va.} Initially the Confederates were spied opposite Dam No. 4. They disappeared. The 12th Indiana, who was on duty there at Dam No. 4, sent a party of men across to see if the Confederates had,indeed, left. They were captured, as the most significant thing that occurred there. That precipitated a sharp exchange, but no damage was done to the canal.

29_The_third_attempt_was_the_one_Jackson_attended

The third attempt was the one that Jackson attended in person. It was during the third week of December for about five days. The Confederates were opposite, arrayed from Falling Waters to Little Georgetown. They made threats and demonstrations as if they were going to cross the river at Falling Waters, where their main intention was to try to breach Dam No. 5.

30_Confederate_Captain_Raleigh_T_Colston

Tuesday – Dec. 17 – Confederate Captain Raleigh T. Colston of Berkeley County led a team onto Dam No. 5

31_after_dark
after dark, and through the night hacked away at

32_log_cribbing
the log cribbing in the middle of the dam.

33_rubble_held_by_the_log_cribs

The rubble held by the log cribs was piled up on the dam so that by morning of the 18th the piled rubble atop the still-standing dam was a breastworks shielding them from Federals gunfire. At daybreak the Federals discovered the breastworks.

34_Massachusetts_soldiers_went_down_the_river

Massachusetts soldiers went down river and found a location from which they could bring fire upon the workers and soon drove the southerners from the dam and into the millhouse. For cover Charlestown-born

35_artillerist_Roger_Preston_Chew

artillerist Roger Preston Chew’s two artillery pieces had been shelling a brick house on the Maryland side, where the shooting was coming from. But on December 19th, Wednesday,

36_Battery_E_1st_Pennsylvania_Artillery

Battery E of the 1st Pennsylvania Artillery answered with two ten pound parrotts forcing Chew to take cover fifty yards to their right.

37_William_T_Poague

Lt. William Thomas Poague of the Confederate Rockbridge Artillery remembered seeing Chew and others shrunk behind a large tree with shells flying by, to the left and to the right. Finally, on the last day, I think it was December 20th, the last day of the expedition, Jackson, in the words of one of his officers, "Yankee’d the Yankees," meaning that he had tricked them. He had boats made to potentially cross the river in a full view of the Union troops at Dam No. 5. He sent them up river toward Little Georgetown. The Union troops were sure that he was going to cross there. Threats had been made the previous day. So they all followed and apparently left the work party with an evening to work on the dam without being fired upon. They heard timber breaking and soon the dam had been breached and (they) left. The very next day the Union Gen. Banks reports that canal

38_boats_still_traveling_in_both_directions

boats are still traveling in both directions. Jackson sent one more, small expedition back to Dam No. 5. They spent two nights at the dam – January 1st and January 2nd; and one of their men in charge there wrote that they spent two additional nights widening the breach.

11389264813_d413e16cca

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28c – Scott Residence – 1910 S Harvard Blvd – HCM-963
philadelphia traffic

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28 – Linda Scott Residence. 1910 S Harvard Blvd. 1907. Frank M Tyler.

Los Angeles Historic Cultural Monument No. 963

Departing from his usual Transitional Victorian-Craftsman Style, F M Tyler designed a mansion for Ms. Linda Scott with a Moorish façade, in 1910. The rooms of this house are arranged around a central foyer with a center staircase descending in the middle of the room from an open gallery. On the south are a feminine parlor and library; on the north is a masculine study and opulent dining room. Access to the service area is from a door hidden behind the staircase. The arrangement is meant to impress, and it does!

West Adams Heights

“Nowadays we scarcely notice the high stone gates which mark the entrances on Hobart, Harvard, and Oxford streets, south of Washington Boulevard. For one thing, the traffic is too heavy, too swift; and then, again, the gates have been obscured by intrusions of shops and stores. At the base of the stone pillars appears the inscription “West Adams Heights.” There was a time when these entranceways were formidable and haughty, for they marked the ways to one of the first elite residential areas in Los Angeles. . . In the unplanned early-day chaos of Los Angeles, West Adams Heights was obviously something very special, an island in an ocean of bungalows—approachable, but withdrawn and reclusive—one of the few surviving examples of planned urban elegance of the turn of the century.”

– Carey McWilliams, “The Evolution of Sugar Hill,” Script, March, 1949: 30.

Today West Adams Heights is still obviously something special. The past sixty years, however, have not been kind. In 1963 the Santa Monica Freeway cut through the heart of West Adams Heights, dividing the neighborhood, obscuring its continuity. In the 1970’s the city paved over the red brick streets and removed the ornate street lighting. After the neighborhood’s zoning was changed to a higher density, overzealous developers claimed several mansions for apartment buildings. Despite these challenges, however, “The Heights,” as the area was once known, has managed to regain some of its former elegance.

The West Adams Heights tract was laid out in 1902, in what was then a wheat field on the western edge of town. Although the freeway now creates an artificial barrier, the original neighborhood boundaries were Adams Boulevard, La Salle Ave, Washington Boulevard, and Western Avenue. Costly improvements were integrated into the development, such as 75-food wide boulevards (which were some of the first contoured streets not to follow the city grid), lots elevated from the sidewalk, ornate street lighting, and large granite monuments with red-brass electroliers at the entrance to every street. These upgrades increased the lot values, which helped ensure the tract would be an enclave for the elite.

One early real estate ad characterized the neighborhood stating: “West Adams Heights needs no introduction to the public: it is already recognized as being far superior to any other tract. Its high and slightly location, its beautiful view of the city and mountains make t a property unequaled by any other in the city.”

The early residents’ were required to sign a detailed restrictive covenant. This hand-written document required property owners to build a “first-class residence,” of at least two stories, costing no less than two-thousand dollars (at a time when a respectable home could be built for a quarter of that amount, including the land), and built no less than thirty-five feet from the property’s primary boundary. Common in early twentieth century, another clause excluded residents from selling or leasing their properties to non-Caucasians.

By the mid 1930’s, however, most of the restrictions had expired. Between 1938 and 1945 many prominent African-Americans began to make “The Heights” their home. According to Carey McWilliams, West Adams Heights became known “Far and wide as the famous Sugar Hill section of Los Angeles,” and enjoyed a clear preeminence over Washington’s smart Le Droit Park, St. Louis’s Enright Street, West Philadelphia, Chicago’s Westchester, and Harlem’s fabulous Sugar Hill.

West Adams Heights, now also known as Sugar Hill, played a major role in the Civil Rights movement in Los Angeles. In 1938 Norman Houston, president of the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company, and an African-American, purchased a home at 2211 South Hobart Boulevard. Legal Action from eight homeowners quickly ensued. During that period, other prominent African-Americans began to make Sugar Hill their home – including actress Hattie McDaniels, dentists John and Vada Summerville, actress Louise Beavers, band leader Johnny Otis, and performers Pearl Baily and Ethel Waters, and many more. On December 6, 1945, the “Sugar Hill Cases” were heard before Judge Thurmond Clark, in LA Superior Court. He made history by become the first judge in America to use the 14th Amendment to disallow the enforcement of covenant race restrictions. The Los Angeles Sentinel quoted Judge Clark: “This court is of the opinion that it is time that [African-Americans] are accorded, without reservations and evasions, the full rights guaranteed them under the 14th Amendment.” Gradually, over the last century people of nearly ever background have made historic West Adams their home.

The northern end of West Adams Heights is now protected as part of the Harvard Heights Historic Preservation Overlay Zone (HPOZ). The Historic West Adams area of Los Angeles (which includes West Adams Heights) boasts the highest concentration of turn-of-the-century homes west of the Mississippi, as well as the highest concentration of National Historic Landmarks, National Register of Historic Places, National Historic Districts, State Historic Landmarks, Los Angeles Cultural-Historic Monuments, and Historic Preservation Overlay Zones in the city. The entirety of West Adams Heights should be nominated as a National Register Historic District, for the quality of homes, the prominence of the architects, notoriety of the people who lived in the neighborhood, and the role it played in civil rights.

Perhaps a quote adapted from a fireplace mantle in the Frederick Rindge mansion best symbolizes the optimism which exists in West Adams: “California Shall be Ours as Long as the Stars Remain.”

14768863922_fe053db286

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Image from page 208 of “Technology of textile design. Being a practical treatise on the construction and application of weaves for all textile fabrics, with minute reference to the latest inventions for weaving. Containing also an appendix showing the ana
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Identifier: technologyoftext1889poss2
Title: Technology of textile design. Being a practical treatise on the construction and application of weaves for all textile fabrics, with minute reference to the latest inventions for weaving. Containing also an appendix showing the analysis and giving the calculations necessary for the manufacture of the various textile fabrics
Year: 1889 (1880s)
Authors: Posselt, E. A. (Emanuel Anthony), 1858-1921
Subjects: Textile fabrics
Publisher: Philadelphia, Pub. by the author [etc.] London, S. Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, limited
Contributing Library: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute Library

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Fig. 871. Fig. 872. opposite directions, to pull the carriage backward and forward transversely along the groovedguide-plate or race of the loom. A similar set of cords and a knife-carriage are provided foreach side of the loom, both knife-carriages moving in the same guide-plate alternately, each onlyabout half the distance across, and each alternating in its lateral travel from side to centre of therace-plate. Transversely across the frame of the loom are arranged two bars or rails, R and 5, theirrelative positions being as shown in Fig. 869, the former being merely a bar or rail supporting 204 the double pile fabric while it is being severed in two through the pile by the laterally-movingcutting-knives. Bar R is recessed near each of its ends (see Figs. 868 and 869) to admit of theinsertion and support therein of the housings for the sharpening-roUers, and so that the upper andlower sharpening-rollers shall come alternately in contact with the upper and lower sides, res-pectively,

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Image from page 172 of “Popular resorts, and how to reach them : combining a brief description of the principal summer retreats in the United States, and the routes of travel leading to them” (1875)
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Identifier: popularresortsho00bach
Title: Popular resorts, and how to reach them : combining a brief description of the principal summer retreats in the United States, and the routes of travel leading to them
Year: 1875 (1870s)
Authors: Bachelder, John B. (John Badger), 1825-1894
Subjects: Summer resorts
Publisher: Boston : John B. Bachelder
Contributing Library: University of Pittsburgh Library System
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation

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itor. The valleys are deep, the])recipices are bold and high, and the momitains steep. Even the watersrush with greater violence than in tamer countries. But the public will.soon understand this scenery better. The artists, the pioneers of pleas-ure travel, have already heard of it, and each year visit it in increasingnumbers. Soon the tide will set up this valley, hotels will be in demandto meet it. and the press will herald its praises. Persons residing in our large cities hardly realize how quickly and forhow small a sum these romantic places can be enjoyed. The morningtrain from New York or Philadelphia takes you to Mauch Chunk inseason for dinner, — dinner steaming hot at the Mansion House. The Switch-back and Glen Onoko can be visited in season to return atnight. l>»)l>lH-Ali KKSOUTS, AM) HOW H) IJKACII TIIIOM. 1.19 The subjoined description of the Nesoopec region is from LippincottsMagazine: — >• We walked about a half-mile along a wood-road, struck into a toot-

Text Appearing After Image:
PROSPECT ROCK.Nescopec Valley. path, andloll owed it a hun-dred yards or so,and without wam-ng walked ojit ona flat rock. fromwhich we could atfirst see nothingbut foq. u]). down,or around. It w^sa misty morning;but we made outto understand that we weremendous on theabyss; verge of a precipice, which fell sheer down into a tre-and when the fog lifted we looked out upon miles and 160 ^PILAR RESORTS. AXIl HOW TO liKACH THEM. miles of valleys, iiartly cleared, but principally covered with primevalforests. We were on Prospect Rock. Presently our guide took us by a romidabout way to Cloud Point.This is a commanding projection ou the other side of the glen; and herea still wider view — another, yet the same — lay before ns. There issomethiuti- indescribably oTand in the solitude of this sc-iif^. — forpsts

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Image from page 233 of “Rambles in the path of the steam-horse. An off-hand olla podrida, embracing a general historical and descriptive view of the scenery, agricultural and mineral resources, and prominent features of the travelled route from Baltimore

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Image from page 233 of “Rambles in the path of the steam-horse. An off-hand olla podrida, embracing a general historical and descriptive view of the scenery, agricultural and mineral resources, and prominent features of the travelled route from Baltimore
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Identifier: ramblesinpathofs00bowe
Title: Rambles in the path of the steam-horse. An off-hand olla podrida, embracing a general historical and descriptive view of the scenery, agricultural and mineral resources, and prominent features of the travelled route from Baltimore to Harper’s Ferry, Cumberland, Wheeling, Cincinnati, and Louisville
Year: 1855 (1850s)
Authors: Bowen, Eli, b. 1824
Subjects: Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company
Publisher: Philadelphia, W. Bromwell and W. W. Smith Baltimore, S. B. Hickcox, agent
Contributing Library: West Virginia University Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation

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n she tell you how she does things ;—but she does them,and you know by the old rule, which tells us that the proof of thepudding is in the eating thereof, that she does them well. From herJohnny cake up to her saddle of mountain venison, the same excellencepervades her every efibrt, and the cook, therefore, in the varied privilegesof her superiority, is allowed unchecked to scald the pointer dogs, rapthe youthful skulls of peering dar-kies, and even pin the dish-cloth toyoung masters coat, when he venturesinto the threshold of her province. Our old friend here is a specimen,and a good one, of the Virginia boot-black, now almost unknown in tlmore travelled portions of the StatThere he sits, as in the engravin^,,morning after morning, with a rowof shining boots,—green tops, fairtops, and rod tops—ranged before himlike soldiers upon dress parade; whilenear him a pile of the same useful articles of pedal wear, still dis-colored with yesterdaj^^s mud, await the exercise of his skill.

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Tl e I!oot-Uaok. RAMBLES IN THE PATH OF THE STEAM HORSE. 217Slaves and Slavery.—The Boot-black. Like all old negroes, who have belonged to decayed families, there is atouch of melancholy in his demeanor, and right solemnly does he dwellupon the past. But what we wish especially to mention—as marking,indeed, the whole class to which he belongs—is the wonderful facilitywith which he forms a true estimate of those with whom he may be broughtin contact. He is seldom in error, and you will try in vain to ring coun-terfeit coin upon him. The true old-fashioned gentleman—the passingaway of whoso race, none lament more than he—though thread-bare andbroken in fortune, is at once recognised by old Billy, and treated withthe most humble deference and respect; while your fresh upstart, stand-ing in his flashy dress, and swelling with the pride of new-gotten wealth,meets but cold civility at his hands, and always occasions some mutteredcontrast with the gentlemen of former days, not espe

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Acela Express #2004
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Acela Express (often called simply Acela) is the name used by Amtrak for the high-speed tilting train service operating between Washington, D.C. and Boston via Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York along the Northeast Corridor (NEC) in the Northeast United States. The tilting design allows the train to travel at higher speeds on the sharply curved NEC without disturbing passengers, by lowering lateral G-forces.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acela_Express

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Image from page 352 of “History of the counties of Dauphin and Lebanon : in the commonwealth of Pennsylvania ; biographical and genealogical” (1883)
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Identifier: historyofcountie00egle
Title: History of the counties of Dauphin and Lebanon : in the commonwealth of Pennsylvania ; biographical and genealogical
Year: 1883 (1880s)
Authors: Egle, William Henry, 1830-1901
Subjects:
Publisher: Philadelphia : Everts & Peck
Contributing Library: University of Pittsburgh Library System
Digitizing Sponsor: University of Pittsburgh Library System

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o-ope. There are many facts connected with the history ofinternal improvements in this locality which it willbe impossible within our prescribed limits to do littlemore than briefly refer to, and we shall present themas they occur to us in this connection. Very few per-sons have any idea of the difficulties of transporta-tion prior to the era of canals and railroads. Eighty-five or ninety years ago it was not an uncommonsight to see as many as five hundred pack-horses pass-ing the ferry here westward, loaded with merchan-dise, salt, iron, etc. The iron was carried on horse-back, being crooked over and around their bodies;barrels or kegs were hung on each side of these. Thepack-horses were generally led in divisions of twelveor fifteen horses, carrying about two hundred weighteach, going single file, and managed by two men, onegoing before as the leader, and the other in the rear,to see after the safety of the packs. Where the bridleroad passed along declivities or over hills, the path

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CITY OF HARRISBURG. 321 was in some places washed out so deep that the packsor burdens came in contact with the ground or otherimpeding obstacles, and were frequently displaced.However, as the carriers usually traveled in com-panies, the packs were soon adjusted, and no greatdelay occasioned. The pack-horses were generallyfurnished with bells, which were kept from ringingduring the day drive, but were loose at night, whenthe horses were set free, and permitted to feed andbrowse. The bells were intended as guides to directto their whereabouts in the morning. When thewagons were first introduced, the carriers consideredthat mode of transportation an invasion of theirrights. Their indignation was more excited, andthey manifested greater rancor than did the regularteamsters when the line of packets or railroad carscame into use about forty years afterwards. Fifty years ago the currency was eleven-penny-bits, fippenny-bits, and shillings,—eight shillings onedollar. Eight yards of calico

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Image from page 253 of “Book of the Royal blue” (1897)
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Identifier: bookofroyalblue24balt
Title: Book of the Royal blue
Year: 1897 (1890s)
Authors: Baltimore and Ohio railroad company. [from old catalog]
Subjects: Middle Atlantic States — Description and travel
Publisher: Baltimore
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation

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0.00 Weston, W. Va 9.05 West Alexander, Pa 10.00 West Newton, Pa 8.05 Wheeling, W.Va lO.OO Williamstown, W. Va. (via Parkers-burg) 10.75 No stop-overs will be permitted on going trip at any point en route. On tickets used to Baltimore, stop-over at Washington (without deposit of ticket) will be allowed on return trip, within final limit of ticket. Full details concerning time of trains, Pullman parlor and sleeping car accommodations, etc., will befurnished on application to ticket agents Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in above territory. Royal Blue Line PERSONALLY CONDUCTED TOURS TO WASHINGTON ALL EXPENSES INCLUDED 1910Seven=Day Tours from BOSTON April 8 and 22, May 6, 1910 from NEW YORK April 9 and 23 and May 7, 1910 Three=Day Tours .00 from NEIW YORK $ 9.00 from PHILADELPHIA $ 8.70 from CHE.STE,R $ 8.25 from WILMINGTON April 14 and 28, May 28,1910 Secure illustrated itineraries and Guide to Washington fromany Baltimore & Ohio ticket agent in above-named cities. mnraw®

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special Excursionsand Conventions—1910 Atlantic City, Cape May, Sea Isle City, Ocean City, N. J., OceanCity, Md., and Rehoboth Beach, Del. —East of the Ohio River,Special Low-Rate Excursions June 23d, July 7th and 21st, Aug^ust4th and i8th and September ist. Atlantic City—General Assembly Presbyterian Church in U. S. A.,May 18th to 31st.G. A. R. National Encampment, September igth to 24th. Baltimore, Md.—Southern Baptist Convention, May nth to 18th. Chicago, 111.—Knights Templar, Triennial Conclave, August 8th to 13th. Cincinnati, Ohio — General Federation Womens Clubs, May nthto 18th. New Orleans, La.—Ancient Arabic Order Nobles Mystic Shrine.Imperial Council, April 12th and 13th. Saratoga Springs, N. Y.—Baptist Young Peoples Union ofAmerica, International Convention, July 7th to loth. Washington, D. C—Worlds Sunday School Association, May19th to 26th. For full information as to rates, etc., apply at ticket offices Baltimore 6 Ohio Railroad Co.

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