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English lessons at the travel agent flashcards – http://www.learn-english.portalsbay.com.
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Short bio for Ben Franklin???? Please answer!!?

Question by Danizzle: Short bio for Ben Franklin???? Please answer!!?
I can’t find a short bio of ben frank thats 1 big paragraph. Could someone sum up the important things he’s done please. thx :)

Best answer:

Answer by Eric
Dr. Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, musician, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and the glass ‘armonica’. He formed both the first public lending library in America and the first fire department in Pennsylvania.
Franklin earned the title of “The First American” for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity; as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies, then as the first United States Ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation. Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical and democratic values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment. In the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, “In a Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat.” To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin “the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become.”
Franklin, always proud of his working class roots, became a successful newspaper editor and printer in Philadelphia, the leading city in the colonies. He was also partners with William Goddard and Joseph Galloway the three of whom published the Pennsylvania Chronicle, a newspaper that was known for its revolutionary sentiments and criticisms of the British monarchy in the American colonies. He became wealthy publishing Poor Richard’s Almanack and The Pennsylvania Gazette. Franklin gained international renown as a scientist for his famous experiments in electricity and for his many inventions, especially the lightning rod. He played a major role in establishing the University of Pennsylvania and was elected the first president of the American Philosophical Society. Franklin became a national hero in America when he spearheaded the effort to have Parliament repeal the unpopular Stamp Act. An accomplished diplomat, he was widely admired among the French as American minister to Paris and was a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations. For many years he was the British postmaster for the colonies, which enabled him to set up the first national communications network. He was active in community affairs, colonial and state politics, as well as national and international affairs. From 1785 to 1788, he served as governor of Pennsylvania. Toward the end of his life, he freed his slaves and became one of the most prominent abolitionists.
His colorful life and legacy of scientific and political achievement, and status as one of America’s most influential Founding Fathers, have seen Franklin honored on coinage and money; warships; the names of many towns, counties, educational institutions, namesakes, and companies; and more than two centuries after his death, countless cultural references.

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Valentines Day 2014
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Whitman’s confections have been produced for over 160 years. Originally a "confectionery and fruiterer shoppe" set up in 1842 by 19-year-old Stephen F. Whitman on the Philadelphia waterfront, Whitman’s first became popular with travelling sailors and their wives. They would often bring imported fruits, nuts and cocoa, obtained during their voyages, to Mr. Whitman so that he could make the popular European confections people craved in that era. Before long, Whitman’s chocolates were popular throughout the northeastern United States.
Whitman’s retail store on Chestnut St. in center city Philadelphia (1894)

Whitman’s produced the first pre-packaged candy in 1854—a box of sugar plums adorned with curlicues and rosebuds. Whitman began advertising in newspapers shortly before the beginning of the Civil War and the business grew so large that in 1866 the company occupied an entire building at 12th and Market Streets in Philadelphia. In 1877, he introduced Instantaneous Chocolates in tin boxes that became much-admired.

2010 Operation Rising Star Final Night – 21
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MG Rueben Jones, FMWRC Commanding General, presents a representative for American Airlines with a plaque thanking the company for therr sponsorship of the contest. (U.S. Army photo by Bill Bradner, FMWRC Public Affairs. Cleared for public release, not for commercial use, attribution requested)


Army wife Gomez wins Operation Rising Star military singing contest

By Tim Hipps
FMWRC Public Affairs

FORT BELVOIR, Va. – Melissa Gomez, who left Soldiering to become a full-time Army wife and mother, won the 2010 Operation Rising Star military singing contest Nov. 19 at Wallace Theater.

Gomez, 29, of Fort Bragg, N.C., prevailed over runner-up Maj. Serelda Herbin, 34, of Fort Hood, Texas, and third-place finisher Senior Airman Joanell Jackson, 24, of Fort Polk, La.

“I thought for sure Serelda was going to win,” Gomez said.

Gomez, who works with a large Army Community Service group at Fort Bragg, had family supporters in her hometown, Philadelphia, and her father’s native Puerto Rico voting early and often in the contest based on the premises of FOX Television’s American Idol.

“ACS and Fort Bragg totally represented for me,” she said. “I didn’t think I had that many people on board, but last night I was getting lots of calls from people saying, ‘We’ve been voting …’

“They were showing everybody the show.”

After Spc. Nicholas Davis of Grafenwoehr, Germany, (originally from Rockingham, N.C.) was eliminated, the Tar Heel State boarded the Gomez bandwagon.

“North Carolina, in general, was representing after Nick fell out,” Gomez said. “Some of his people said they just needed North Carolina to win.

“I had my church in Philadelphia, my family, my mother’s work, my family in Puerto Rico – they were all watching the show online and voting.”

Gomez joined the Army at age 17 and promptly married a Soldier. She served six years before leaving as a sergeant to become a full-time military mother.

“They kept deploying us separately and I had to keep sending my children to live with my mom,” Gomez explained. “I was in a really active MOS. It was mostly me who kept coming down on orders, so I had to decide to be a mom.”

A self-professed late bloomer, Gomez began singing around age 12. She also plays a few Latin percussion instruments. In 2004, she toured domestic military installations and Korea with USA Express, a stage band sponsored by Army Entertainment Division.

For winning Operation Rising Star, Gomez will record a three-song demo CD at Firehouse Recording Studios in Pasadena, Calif., paid for by the Army Family and MWR Command.

“I can’t wait! I can’t wait!” she said. “I’m mentally prepared for the worst and just hope for the best. I look forward to really, really working with Victor [Hurtado] and Joey [Beebe], two completely talented people that I know can make me sound amazing, and Miss [Debra] Byrd.

“That’s what I look forward to big-time.”

Lisa Pratt, the 2009 Operation Rising Star winner, gave Gomez some tips about what to expect during the whirlwind week in Hollywood, where the new champion hopes to unveil some ideas of her own.

“It feels like I’m going to get to represent spouses and veterans in a positive light,” Gomez said. “I want to focus on keeping it where it needs to be because we have a hard job. I’ve been through it nine months of the year without a husband.”

“Life goes on for us whether he’s here or not – and I’ve got to keep it rolling.”

Gomez rolled through Operation Rising Star Finals Week by singing “I Need You” and “How Do I Live” by LeeAnn Rimes, “Out Here on My Own” by Irene Cara, “I Ain’t Got Nothing” by Alicia Keys, and “Turn the Beat Around” by Gloria Estefan.

Herbin presented a strong challenge with “At Last” by Jennifer Holliday, “I Feel Like a Woman” by Shania Twain, “My Heart Will Go On,” by Celine Dion, “One Moment in Time” by Whitney Houston, and Holliday’s “I Am Changing,” which nearly brought the house down during the semifinals on Wednesday night.

“I think I just said to throw it on the stage,” Operation Rising Star judge Debra Byrd, a vocal coach for American Idol, said to Herbin after her performance of “I Am Changing.” “Well, ladies and gentlemen, she just threw down on the stage. I applaud you because you came here with the determination of song choice, song choice and song choice.

“From your last two performances, you kicked it up into high gear and put a hot sauce on it. I applaud you. I applaud you. Well done.”

The three finalists delivered an entertaining medley of Houston’s “I Have Nothing,” Keys’ “I Ain’t Got Nothing” and Dion’s “My Heart Will Go On” during the semifinals on Wednesday night.

“You guys picked these songs to win and I don’t blame you,” Byrd said. “You want to get these biggie songs in. I applaud you for your effort. … I applaud you for the courage to pick these bombastic songs because that’s the mind of a winner – you want to pick the biggie.

“Whew, I know you’re glad that’s over with. I applaud you ladies.”

Second-place finisher Herbin said she was “content, happy and grateful for being here, but it is a competition and we knew the rules.”

“Hey, there can only be one,” she said with a teary-eyed smile and a laugh. “Overall, I had a great time.”

Third-place finisher Jackson, a last-minute substitute in the top 12, was content with the outcome and elated by the experience.

“I’m happy with the outcome,” she said. “I had fun. It was a great experience. Two weeks, 12 people, and now we’re family. I didn’t have that much time to advertise, but people really enjoyed my voice. I was really shocked that I made to the final round.

“I have accomplished what I need to accomplish to prove that I am a singer and that I enjoy singing and that I do have a talent.”

Jackson said she would love to continue entertaining troops.

“Maybe when I finish my mission at Fort Polk and I’m done with my military career, maybe do what Michael has done,” she said of Military Operation Rising Star judge Michael Peterson’s affinity for performing for troops. “I’ve been in Tops in Blue and being able to travel to encourage troops is a great opportunity – I would really love to do that.”

Serving in the Air Force with a husband in the Army, Jackson, who also serves as a mother of four, said someone needs to change careers.

“We’re in two different branches and we’ve been separated for awhile,” she explained. “I want to live with my husband. I miss him so much. I love the military, it’s a great thing, but I really do want to have my family near.”

Latest Discovery Of Society Hill News

MISSILE STONEWARE: Thor’s thunder~bolt~serpent “ingot”; Freya’s “βαυβóν”; Odin’s ferry~boat “dart”. MAGIC.κ.TOOL: hafted saxon knife (“seax”) & saw; hilted hammer & harpoon. ♦SACRED♦ADAMANTINE♦LIGHTNING♦SHUTTLE♦
discovery of society hill

Image by quapan
──► DECK: Move your mouse over the above ło کee the noteς I’ve inکcribed onło the łhunderbolł-کerpenł’s deck. (Sept 2nd). ──► BOTTOM-UP: Odin’s ferry boat from beneath (Sept 15th). ──► STAR-BOARD: »thunder-boat« boomerangs around in wave-lines {keeled upon her port-side} (Oct 1st). ──► PORT-SIDE: is shaped in form of a nutshell (lune). It shows some remnants of the orange-red glaze. One of these is a big hot-spot of reddish (possibly iron-bearing) varnish. Upon all the seven levelled planes of the stoneware can be found traces of this warpaint. (Oct 16th).

▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▐► D I S C O V E R Y ◄▌ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼
On Wednesday, August 29th 2007, one day after the full august moon, between sunset (20:03) and moonrise (20:18) I stumbled across a magick stone and picked it up. It was strikingly wedge-shaped. I was somehow happy to have found anything. Why did it have these three longsides? An underside, an outside and an inside. Was it possibly a hand axe or something like that?
I stayed alone upon the hill and took some photos of the nightlighted Berlin-Silhouette. The Moon of Alabama had risen up through the clouds over the horizon and was shining brightly. So I could make notes into my rough book. Next day deciphering what I had scribbled under the pale shimmer of the moonlight I was taken aback recognizing it as a grapholalia: »I’n tototally lunactiv ….«

Four days later on a sunday afternoon, September 2nd 2007, I began to investigate the architecture and design of the beautiful piece again. Suddenly I was recognizing with delight: The stone was the ideal tool for hunters & collectors: It is multifunctional.
Dart the missile ! The pointed keel will stabilize the ballistics of its trajectory !
With the proximal phalanx of the thumb at the hilt, you can use it as a little pestle (triangular area: 1,5 x 1,5 x 1,5 cm) – turn it by 180 degrees – and you can have a hand-chisel (‘nutcracker’) with a punch-area of 2,5 x 1,5 cm.
But preeminently you can use it as a hand hammer to stun birds or little animals by a blow, subsequently turn the hand-palm by 90 degrees and you get a hand knife with a 3-cm-blade between the tips of thumb and index – to cut the throats of your already dazed victims.

HAFT: The back quarter of the artifact has been shaped slightly bent to customize it to the fist (‘claw’) of a right-hander that must not have had very long finger-digits to provide firm and tight handholds.
BLADE: At the knife head there is a cutting edge that has a length of approximately three centimeters. It lies between two flattened triangular planes having obviously served as handles for the tip of the index finger (2cm x 2cm x 2cm) and and the tip of the thumb (3cm x 3cm x 1,5cm). A third flattened area is even larger. This one is not triangular but rectangular (4cm x 2,5cm) and gave hold for the thumb ball. The blade has one big flake scar (1,3 x 0,7cm) upon the outside and many little flake scars upon the inside (1,1 x 0,5cm).

Outward Appearance:
At first sight the piece looks a little bit like a meteorite. It has an oblong shape. The colour is darkly brown. At some parts it is covered with something that looks like rust . This maybe partly caused by iron oxide from the impurities of the fired clays used to produce the stoneware ("Darker clays often contain iron and other metal oxide impurities") but more likely these spots are the remnants of the red varnish that was used to mark the stoneware as destined for war. (–>Was ist Religion?)

Impregnable: The texture of the surface is vitrious, hence it is astounding water repellent and hygrophobic. Water rolls off from the stylized phallus with its retracted, rippling foreskin (→ notes) as if it was contrived as a glans. Possibly this impregnation was achieved by firing it two times, the second time with a much lower temperature and spread with a special glaze.
Circumstantial phenomena give evidence that the piece is not a rough-hewn stone or a earthenware but a fired stoneware. Arguments: Fired Stoneware generally absorbs up to 5% water whereas Earthenware absorbs more than 10%. Additionally stoneware is in contrast to earthenware freeze resistant !

Versatility & Mercuriality
Versatile & mercurial like a Six Blade Knife it is trivially or ritually useable as a mêlée or ranged weapon:
hammer | baubón | knife | pestle | harpoon | missile | …. | ….

Fragrance: If I touch with my nose the stoneware in order to inhale the flagrant gas which it is still exuding I can smell the New World Odour that had to take place as soon as these serendipitous people which have made this warhead in their smelting furnaces had discovered how to extract iron from their clays . The Hellenics reported the invention of iron originated from Scythia but possibly those Scythians were or received it from the ethnicities living at that time just where I have found this weapon – around the rivers Wuhle, Spree and Havel.

Time Line: I guess this ingot was forged on the verge of iron age. This would mean it was hiding for about 3000 years upon the summit of that germanic cradle hill.

Ground Plan (germanic / mexican mytho-theology)
The Ground Plan of the underside was wedged in the shape of a lune. But then the potter had to take into account mythological considerations: At the backside of the stone the broken off apex of the moon sickle (lune, crescent moon) shall remind us to the broken off hammer-shaft. The frontside tip (length=3 cm) was purposely bent against the suppossed direction – to starboard.
The bow is bent to the port side, and the stern is bent to starboard. So the ground plan of the (rock[et]) ship resembles either the rune eihwaz (yew tree) {which looks like a straightened question mark} or the rune sōwulō (sun).
But there is a much simpler answer to the problem of this winding ground line: The powerful tool of the Mexíca God Quetzalcoatl (Quetzal ‘feather of the quetzal’ & coatl ‘snake’) is the lightning snake and – as you may know – "the serpent is both a fertility and lightning symbol among many peoples" (Aztec Beliefs "Quetzalcoatl sailed away on a raft of serpents and the people looked forward to his return".). The stoneware is shaped like a boat, has a winding ground line and scales like a snake, – and therefore reminds us to the serpent-raft of Quetzalcoatl.
—> The germanic Donnar [Thor], the powerful fertility and lightning God, stands in significant analogy to the mexican Quetzalcoatl [mayan Kukulcan].
EVOLUTION: The scales of the fishes transformed to the scales of the reptiles and the scales of the reptiles transformed to the feathers of the birds.
The Eleven Planes
The ingot has 3 levelled large planes: inside, outside and underside.
There are 4 levelled smaller planes: 3 of them are for the fingertips, 1 of them for the thumb ball.
There are 4 not levelled smaller planes. One of them is the backside.

___length:_ 11,0 cm
___width :__ 3,5 cm
___height:__ 4,5 cm
blade-length: 3 cm____

Specific Density ρ
m = 0,212 kg; V ~ 80 ml → ρ (thunder~bolt) ~ 2,7 gram/ccm
Compare with:
ρ(granite)= 2.6 gram/ccm; ρ(concrete)= 2.5 gram/ccm; ρ (water) = 1.0 gram/ccm; ρ (ice) = 0.9 gram/ccm; ρ (Earth) = 5.5 gram/ccm; ρ(steel)= 7.7 gram/ccm;

Fracture Toughness
The thunder~bolt seems to be very adamantine. It has presumably a higher Fracture Toughness than granite.

▼ ▼ ▼ ▐► Germanic Tracks ◄▌ (Thor,Odin,Freya,…)▼ ▼ ▼
The trisided stoneware has a handle that is bent (‘Boomerang’) and somehow ‘broken off’. With its phallic shape, it could have had easily represented a ‘Mjolnir’.
There are some scratchers upon the surface. One of them seems to resemble the Futhark Rune nauÞiz which stands for Need/Hardship.
Upon a summit of a hill I stumbled across this fired thunder~bolt and a few days later (September 5th 2007) I have found at this site a fired bird panel made from the same sort of clay and the granite artefact buffalo BEROLINA which is a pestle with a mortar-tail.
„In ein Haus, in dem ein Donnerkeil ist oder Feuer auf dem Heerd brennt, oder ein Vogel ein Nest gebaut hat, schlägt der Blitz nicht ein.” (aus Lauthenthal, n. KUHN u. SCHWARTZ, 411) [Schwarzes Netz]
Thor’s Hammer Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah (1999)
Thor (wikipedia.de)
"Thor im Norden, oder Donar bei den kontinentalen germanischen Völkern .. In den eddischen Schriften hat er die Aufgabe des Beschützers von Midgard, der Welt der Menschen. ….„Jupiter tonans“, Zeus, der keltische Taranis, sie nutzen als Waffe den steinernen Donnerkeil, der durch den Blitzstrahl vom Himmel zur Erde geworfen wird.
… wenn er seinen Kraftgürtel Megingjarder umschnallt, der ihm doppelte Kraft verleiht, mit seinen Eisenhandschuhen den Hammer Mjölnir fasst …Da sagte Thrym, der Thursen König: „Bringt den Hammer, die Braut zu weihen! Leget Mjöllnir der Maid in den Schoß! Mit der Hand der War weiht uns zusammen!“
Das Herz im Leib lachte da Thor, als der hartgemute den Hammer sah: erst traf er Thrym, der Thursen König; der Riesen Geschlecht erschlug er ganz. {Das Thrymlied (Þrymskviða)}
Einst stahl Thrym Thor seinen Hammer, als dieser schlief. Als Thor aufwacht gerät er in hilflose Wut, als er sich seiner wichtigsten Waffe beraubt sieht. Loki fliegt, mit Freyas Federkleid ausgestattet, durch die Gegend und erspät Thors Hammer in Riesenheim und stellt Thrym zur Rede. Thrym will ihn nur unter der Bedingung zurückgeben, dass er die Göttin Freya zur Frau bekommt. Freya gerät allerdings in große Wut, als Loki ihr dies erzählt. Daraufhin schlägt Loki vor, Thor selbst als Freya zu verkleiden ihn als Braut zu schmücken, um ihn Thrym als Freya zu präsentieren. Thor hat Bedenken, dass man ihn auslachen könnte, sieht sich allerdings genötigt, auf diesen Plan einzugehen. Beide reisen in Verkleidung als Braut und Brautbegleiterin zu Thrym. Thor fällt durch das Donnern, das seine Reise begleitet, seinen stechenden Blick, als Thrym ihm den Brautkuss geben möchte und seine unglaubliche Gefräßigkeit beim Brautfest auf, Loki weiß allerdings Thrym immer wieder zu beruhigen. Zur Vollendung der Festlichkeiten lässt der Riesenfürst seiner Braut schließlich Thors Hammer Mjölnir in den Schoß legen. Woraufhin der Donnergott seinen Hammer fasst und alle anwesenden erschlägt. …
Thor trägt seinen Hammer Mjölnir und den Machtgürtel Megingiard. Wenn Thor den Hammer wegschleudert kommt dieser immer wieder zurück. Aus einer isländischen Handschrift des 18. Jhs.
Mjölnir Snorri Sturluson berichtet in seiner Snorra-Edda (in den Skáldskaparmál) von der Erschaffung des Hammers. Mjölnir (der auch sog. Uru-Hammer) wurde von den beiden Zwergen Sindri und Brokk aus Uru-Erz geschmiedet und besitzt die Eigenschaft, dass er, wenn er geworfen wird, nie sein Ziel verfehlt und wieder in die Hand des Werfers zurückkehrt. Außerdem kann er nur von Thor geführt werden. Es heißt, dass Loki in Gestalt einer Fliege den Zwerg Brokk, der in der Schmiede das Feuer schürte, in die Stirn stach, so dass der Schaft des Hammers zu kurz geriet.
Mjolnir In Norse mythology, Mjolnir (also spelled Mjölnir, Mjöllnir, Mjollner, Mjølnir, Mjølner, or Mjölner) (IPA pronunciation: [mjolnər]) "Mjolnir" simply means "mealer" referring to its pulverizing effect. It is related to words such as the Icelandic verbs mölva (to crush) and mala (to grind), but similar words, all stemming from the Proto-Indo-European root melə can be found in almost all European languages, e.g. the Slavic melvo (grain to be ground) and molotu (hammer), the Dutch meel (meal), the Russian Молоток (molotok – hammer), the Greek μύλος (mylos – mill) and the Latin malleus (hammer) as well as the Latin mola (mill). The English meal, mill and maul are direct relatives, while mallet and molar arrived via Latin. It has been suggested that although the name reflects Mjolnir’s awesome powers it might also allude to Thor’s agricultural nature, as he was primarily worshipped by farmers. An alternative theory suggests that Mjolnir might be related to the Russian word молния (molniya) and the Welsh word mellt (both words being translated as "lightning"). This second theory parallels with the idea that Thor, being a god of thunder, therefore might have used lightning as his weapon.[1]
Mjolnir is said to be the most fearsome weapon in Norse mythology, and is used to slay any challengers to Æsir supremacy. It is often referred to as either a club, axe, or hammer, and is capable of toppling giants and destroying mountains with a single blow.[2]
Legends surrounding the war hammer’s origins vary: some relate that the Svartalf Sindri and Brokkr made it at the command of Loki; other tales contend that it descended to earth as a meteorite. Consequently, many Norse polytheists believed that lightning strikes were a manifestation of Mjolnir on earth.
Mjolnir is often represented with a bent handle. The rune Tiwaz (↑), usually thought to be a symbol of the god Tyr, is thought by some to represent Thor’s hammer. Mjolnir may also mean fertility, the phallus that impregnates the earth.
Sometimes Mjolnir is compared to a boomerang, due to its ability to return to its thrower. Usually, it is used as normal war hammer. There may be a connection between Thor’s throwing hammer and the francisca throwing axes of the Franks.
Snorri’s Edda gives a detailed description of Mjolnir’s special qualities:
"…He [Thor] would be able to strike as firmly as he wanted, whatever his aim, and the hammer would never fail, and if he threw it at something, it would never miss and never fly so far from his hand that it would not find its way back, and when he wanted, it would be so small that it could be carried inside his tunic."[4]
Freyja In Norse Mythology and Germanic Mythology, Freyja (sometimes anglicized as Freya) is sister of Freyr and daughter of Njord. She is usually seen as a Norse fertility goddess. – Freyja was also a goddess of war, battle, death, magic, prophecies and wealth. Freyja is cited as receiving half of the dead lost in battle in her hall Fólkvangr, whereas Odin would receive the other half.
Freya Scandinavian Mythology the goddess of love and of the night, sister of Frey. Often identified with Frigga. [NODE]
Odin / Wotan verdrängte den Himmelsvater Tyr, Allvater, Göttergeschlecht der Asen in Asgard (Krone der Weltenesche Yggdrasil)
asatru.de "seine beiden Brüdern Vili und Vé (Hönir und Lodur) .. Mit der Göttin Jörd (Erde) hat Odin den Sohn Thor (Donar). Attribute Odins sind sein Speer (Gungnir), sein Ring (Draupnir), die beiden Raben Huginn (Gedanke) und Muninn (Erinnerung), sein achtbeiniges Pferd Sleipnir und seine Wölfe Freki (der Gefräßige) und Geri (der Gierige). Einäugigkeit, Hut, (blauer) Mantel ." (Birka Vibeke in recht pomadigem Stil auf der Rieger-Site)
Official THUNDERBOLT Website Norwegian Black Heavy Metal Rocker (2002 ff)
thunderbolt (en.wikipedia) A thunderbolt is a traditional expression for a discharge of lightning or a symbolic representation thereof. In its original usage the word may also have been a description of meteors … In Norse mythology, Odin‘s spear Gungnir is an embodiment of lightning. In addition, his son, Thor is specifically the god of thunder and lightning, wielding Mjolnir.
thunderbolt (poetic/literary) a flash of lightning with a simultaneous crash of thunder – a supposed bolt or shaft believed to be the destructive agent in lightning flash, especially as an attribute of a god such as Jupiter or Thor – used in similes and comparisons to refer to very sudden or unexpected event or item of news, especially of an unpleasant nature [NODE p.1935]
The quieter and darker it is the lighter the flash and the louder the thunder. (November,1st,2007)

Valknut is a symbol consisting of three interlocked triangles. The symbol appears on Scandinavian rune stones in connection with Odin.
According to H. R. Ellis Davidson (p. 146), the valknut — is thought to symbolize the power of the god Odin to bind or unbind [a man's mind] … so that men became helpless in battle, and he could also loosen the tensions of fear and strain by his gifts of battle-madness, intoxication, and inspiration.
The Valknut symbol plays a role in modern Germanic neopagan faiths drawn from Germanic paganism, particularly
perplex verb (of somethng complicated or unaccountable) cause someone to feel completely baffled – dated: complicate or confuse (a matter)
Ásatrú, where numerous explanations and interpretations of the symbol are given. The symbol is also called : heart of the slain; heart of Vala; Hrungnir’s heart; Odin’s knot; Star of Wotan
ship burial or boat grave is a burial in which a ship or boat is used either as a container for the dead and the grave goods, or as a part of the grave goods itself. If the ship is very small, it is called a boat grave. This style of burial was used in the Vendel era and by the Anglo Saxons, the Merovingians, the Vikings and occasionally the Ancient Egyptians. This burial was seen as a way for the dead to sail to Valhalla, ship burial was a high honour.
human sacrifice and boat grave A detailed eyewitness account of a human sacrifice by what may have been a Völva was given by Ahmad ibn Fadlan as part of his account of an embassy to the Volga Bulgars in 921. In his description of the funeral of a Scandinavian chieftain, a slave girl volunteers to die with her master. After ten days of festivities, she is stabbed to death by an old woman (a sort of priestess who is referred to as ‘Angel of Death’) and burnt together with the deceased in his boat.

▐► Seax ◄▌
(also Hadseax, Sax, Seaxe, Scramaseax and Scramsax), was a type of Germanic single-edged knife.[1] Seax seem to have been used primarily as a tool but may also have been a weapon in extreme situations.[2] They occur in a size range from 7.5 cm to 75 cm. The larger ones (langseax) were probably weapons, the smaller ones (hadseax) tools, intermediate sized ones serving a dual purpose.[2] Wearing a seax may have been indicative of freemanship, much like the possession of a spear since only free men had the right to bear arms.[2] The seax was worn in a horizontal sheath at the front of the belt.[3] Scram refers to food and seax to a blade (so, "food knife").[4][2] The Saxons may have derived their name from seax (the implement for which they were known) in much the same way that the Franks were named for their francisca.[4] The seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Middlesex and Essex, which both feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem.
The Anglo Saxon Broken Back Seax The majority of seaxes have quite short tangs, between 3cm and 7cm long. .. First and foremost is its distinctive "broken back" blade shape. … Its sharp wedge shape gives it great—even armour-piercing—strength. A cutting blow would smash flesh and bone beneath mail. On an unarmoured body, a cut would prove to be crippling or deadly. Likewise, its needle point would make thrusts devastating to the human body.

▐►Christianization Wars and Laws ◄▌
– against the saxon tribes on the continent and in England

Charlemagne enforced Christianization upon Saxons on the continent (772 – 804)
The word ‘Saxon’ is believed to be derived from the word seax, meaning a variety of single-edged knives. The Saxons were considered by Charlemagne’s historian Einhard (Vita Caroli c.7), to be especially war-like and ferocious.
The Saxons long resisted both becoming Christians ("they are much given to devil worship," Einhard said, "and they are hostile to our religion," as when they martyred the Saints Ewald, 695) and being incorporated into the orbit of the Frankish kingdom, but were decisively conquered by Charlemagne in a long series of annual campaigns, the Saxon Wars (772 – 804). During Charlemagne’s campaign in Hispania (778), the Saxons advanced to Deutz on the Rhine and plundered along the river. With defeat came the enforced baptism and conversion of the Saxon leaders and their people. Even their sacred tree, Irminsul, was destroyed.
Baptism Vow After the defeat against the Franks in the 8th century every saxon warrior had to forsake "Thunaer ende Uoden ende Saxnote ende allum them unholdum", (i.e. any old deities were bunched together as a triade and so should be publicly exorcized out of him the whole germanic pantheon,) and in place of it he had to commit himself to the confession in the frankish-christian ‘monotheistic’ trinity of father, son and ghost.
It’s not only demonizing and breaking down the old deities and replacing them by the new ones but denouncing polytheism by naming any old gods

Forsachistu diabolae?
ET RESPONDET: ec forsacho diabolae.
end allum diabolgelde?
RESPONDET: end ec forsacho allum diobolgeldae.
end allum dioboles uuercum?
RESPONDET: end ec forsacho allum diaboles uuercum and uuordum, Thunaer ende Uoden ende Saxnote ende allum them unholdum, the hira genotas sint.
gelobistu in got alamehtigan fadaer?
ec gelobo in got alamehtigan fadaer.
gelobistu in Crist godes suno?
ec gelobo in Crist gotes suno.
gelobistu in halogan gast?
ec gelobo in halogan gast.

‘… and all the diabolic sacrifices?
HE HAS TO ANSWER: and I forsake all diabolic works and words, Thunaer {anglosaxon transcription of Donnar-Thor} and Uuoden {Wotan-Odin} and Saxnote {?} and all the villains who are their comrades.’
The Saxons {.de: Sachsen} were a confederation of Old Germanic tribes.
Saxony in the names of states existing in the FRG today: Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Free State of Saxony.

King Edgar orders to extinguish heathendom (10th century)
"We teach that every priest shall extinguish heathendom and forbid wilweorthunga (fountain worship), licwiglunga (incantations of the dead), hwata (omens), galdra (magic), man worship and the abominations that men exercise in various sorts of witchcraft, and in frithspottum (peace-enclosures) with elms and other trees, and with stones, and with many phantoms." (source: 16th Canon law enacted under King Edgar in the 10th century.)

▐► Structuralistic, mythological Remarks: ◄▌(hellenic | germanic)
○ Lightning and thunder are weapons of Zeus, given from from the one-eyed Cyclops. Lightning and thunder are weapons given to Thor from the one-eyed Odin.
Lightning & Thunder – Double: Zeus & Bromios = Odin & Thor. The Sagittarius-Starsign of nowadays originates from a germanic glyph for Odin & Thor .
○ Zeus against Titans = Thor againts Thursen

▐► Polytheistic Perplexism versus Monotheistic Monadism ◄▌
The gods in ancient polytheistic religions are not simple entities like the prophets or saints in our monotheistic religions. They are ‘interwoven’. The symbol that was named ‘valknut’ by modern scholars stands for the perplexity of the polytheistic pantheon. (klp, sept.15th 2007)
"Don’t Get It Twisted!" [Tupac Shakur / Gwen Stefani (2006)]

▐► Βαυβώ & βαυβών ◄▌
Baubo war im Mythos der griechischen Antike die Amme der Fruchtbarkeitsgöttin Demeter. Als deren Tochter Kore von Hades entführt wird, erheitert Baubo die trauernde Demeter durch obszöne Gesten und Witze. Baubo bedeutet im Altgriechischen „Schoß“ und war ein Beiname der Unterweltgöttin Hekate. Sie trat auch unter dem Namen Jambe in Erscheinung, war dann die Personifizierung des obszönen Gesanges im jambischen Versmaß. Später wurde der Begriff Baubo zur Bezeichnung eines alten Weibes verwandt. In Goethes Faust ist von der Hexe Baubo die Rede, wie sie auf einer Sau durch die Walpurgisnacht reitet.
βαυβώ, ἡ, = κοιλία, Empedocles Poeta Philosophus {153}. 1.cavity of the body, i.e. thorax with abdomen 2. belly,abdomen 3.intestines 4.excrement [LSJ]
βαυβών,ῶνος,ὁ,=ὄλισβος, Herodas Mimographus. 6.19. (→ Ed. W. Headlam & A.D.Knox, Cambridge 1922) [LSJ]
ὄλισβος,ὁ, penis coriaceus, Cratinus 316, Aristophanes Lysistrata 109,Fragmenta 320.13, ὀλισβοκόλλιξ loaf in the shape of an ὄλισβος, Comica Adespota 1094 [LSJ]
Baubo (Βαυβώ):
Gattin des Dysaules, Mutter der Mise, Figur der altorphischen Demetersage [dtv Der kleine Pauly, S.843], der Iambe des Homerischen Hymnus entsprechend. Während Iambe den Brauch des twthasmos in den eleusinischen Mysterien verkörpert, gibt die Episode von der die trauernde Deo-Demter erheiternde Entblößung der B. das Aition für eine bestimmte Form kultischer Exhibition (M. Delcourt Hermaphrodite, 1958, 49), die einen dem Iambismos analogen Sinne gehabt haben muß ([3], 29, Vgl. C. Sittl, Die Gebärden der Griechen und Römer, 1890, 104) . Nach S. Reinach Cultes, Mythes et Religions 4,1912, 116ff. und Wehrli a.O.81 wäre er apotropäisch; dagegen wollte Ch.Picard, RHR 25, 1927, 220ff. (zustimmend M.J. Lagrange, Rev. Bibl. 38, 1929, 76ff. und A. Loisy Les mysteres paiens et le mystére chretien, 1930, 68,1), – gestützt auf das Fragment von Empedocles und die Glosse des Herodas – , die Beziehung eines mit Iambe-Iambos vergleichbaren Paares βαυβώ-βαυβών zu den Sexualsymbolen κίστη- κάλαθος der zentralen eleusinischen Kulthandlung herstellen. (vgl. J. Dey Palingenesia, NTA 17,5 1937, 41ff.. 49ff. Für sprachlichen Zusammenhang zwischen Baubo und βαυβών auch Dieterich a.O. 127 und L. Rademacher RhM 59, 1904, 312f gegen Rohde Psyche 2,408, dessen Ableitung von dem Schallwort βαύ gleich wohl von Rademacher a.O. 311f akzeptiert wird. Wie Rohde und R. Eisler, Ph.68, 1909, 136,71, sieht er in B. einen zum Typ der Mormo, Gello, Gorgo gehörigen, ursprünglich hundegestaltigen weiblichen Schreckdämon (vgl. Orph. fr.53 Th. Hopfner Griechisch-Ägyptischer Offenbarungszauber,1,1921,51) aus dem nächtlichen Gefolger der Hekate, mit der spätorphische Tradition sie übrigens gleichsetzt (Hymn. Mag. 3,2 E. Abel Orphica, 1885, 289. Vgl. O. Kern, AM 16, 1891, 7.2. Dieterich a.O. 128). Die Sexualsymbolik von βαυβώ-βαυβών wird durch den Hinweis auf κύων-αἰδοῖον (Phot. Hesych.Eust.1822,13ff) damit in Einklang gebracht. Anderereseits hat die Variante Βαβώ, außer in dem bei Michael Psellos erhaltenen Orph.fr. 53 und einem kaiserzeitlichen epigr. Zeugnis aus Galatien (CIG 4142) noch durch die Inschrift von Paros belegt im Hinblick auf die Rolle der B. als Amme der Demeter (Hesych.) zu der Deutung "die (dämon.) alte Frau" (Baba-Boba) geführt (E. de Martino), für die man volkskundliche Parallelen zur Verfügung hat (W.Mannhardt, Mytholog. Forschungen,1884, 299ff). – Die Paros-Inschrift nennt B. zusammen mit den Hauptgottheiten von Eleusis Demeter, Thesmophoros, Kore und Zeus Eubuleus; das spricht für allte vororphische Zugehörigkeit zum eleusinischen Kultverein. Geographisch weist sie neben CIG 4142, der thebanischen Mänade B. zu Magnesia und der B. Tochter Mise auf den anatolischen Raum. Ihm entstammt auch die Gespenster Herrin Hecate-Brimo; ihr Konnex zum Kreis der Demeter als deren ehemalige Konkurrentin ist im hom. Hymnus noch faßbar (Wehrli, a.O.82f.). B. dürfte demnach eine selbständige Form der in die Demeterreligion eingedrungenen kleinasiatischen Göttin gewesen sein, deren nächtlich schreckensvolle Natur zum derb-komischen Gebaren eines häßlichen alten Weibes verharmlost wurde. Für den Sinn des obszönen Gestus ist die Version wichtig, nach der Demeter selbst ihn ausführt. Er gehörte also der großen Göttin, deren freundliche segenspendende Seite durch Demeter-Baubo (de Martino, a.O. 75ff. Vgl. K. Pruemm Der christliche Glaube und die altheidnische Welt 1, 1935, 350), deren düstere durch Hekate-Baubo vertreten wird. Der situs des ἀνάσυρμα hat dementsprechend gleich der Aischrologie der Gephyrismen apotropäisch-schreckende wie protreptisch-fruchtbarkeitsfördernde Funktion. Im Zusammenhang damit ist das von E. Hahn Demeter und Baubo,1896,54ff. zusammengestellte folkloristische Material über kult. αἰσχρολογία und αἰσχρουργία von Interesse; ebenso mit Rücksicht auf die Verbindung von τωϑασμός und ἀνάσυρμα bei den Frauen von Bubastis (Hdt. 2.60. A. Wiedemann Herodots 2. Buch, 1890,256), die von I. Lévy Mél. F.Cumont, 1936,819ff herangezogene ägyptische Überlieferung über rituelle Exhibition und rituelles Lachen (vgl. J. Capart, BAB 17, 1931, 421), ohne daß man daraus mit P.Foucart Les mystères d’Eleusis, 1914, 467ff. A. Koerte, ARW 18, 1915,120 und Lévy a.O. 832f eine Übernahme der Baubo-Gestalt aus Ägypten folgern müßte. Der Typus der ϑεὰ ἀνασυρομένη, wie ihn die gastrokephalen Statuetten von Priene (Th. Wiegand-H. Schrader Priene, 1904, 161ff S. Reinach, RA 10, 1907, 166f.[1],10f.) und die bekannte ital. Terrakotte der auf dem Schwein reitenden Dea impudica (Cook a.O. Abb.79) zeigen, findet sich von der ägäisch-anatolischen Welt bis zum Nildelta verbreitet (D.G. Hogarth, JHS 25, 1905, 128f. Picard a.O. 248f ErJb 6, 1938, 100ff Pestalozza a.O. 540). Die personifizierte Vulva (βαυβώ[1], 12f. [2],42f), drastischer Ausdruck der positiven und negativen maternalen Potenz, ist wie ihr Pendant, der verlebendigte Phallos (Bes-Akephalos: Pickard a.O. 250ff.) Symbol der großen lebengebenden Gottheit, von deren ursprünglich zweigeschlechtlicher Natur neben Mise-Mida auch Baubo-Orthobaubo (F.G.Kenyon Greek Papyri in British Museum, 1893, 79) eine Spur bewahrt hat. (de Martino a.O. 72f).
(Dr. Wolfgang Fauth (Göttingen) schrieb für Der Kleine Pauly (Band 1,S. 843-845, dtv, März 1979) diesen Artikel zum Lemma ‘Baubo’. )

▐►Mythic Example of Pareidolia ◄▌
Demeter started to laugh when she began to recognize Baubo’s vulva as a human face. —> Priene-Statuettes
Carl Sagan: hypothesized that as a survival technique, human being are "hard-wired" from birth to identify the human face. This allows people to use only minimal details to recognize faces from a distance and in poor visibility, but can also lead them to interpret random images or patterns of light and shade as being faces.

▐► grapholalia ◄▌
As many are aware, from its early inception to the present day, the Pentecostal movement has incorporated glossolalia, or speaking in tongues, in its worship practices. Much debate has circulated over this practice, and much confusion has resulted from it.
However, in my recent reading of Heaven Below, Grant Wacker’s essential history of Pentecostalism, I have come across a phenomenon he mentions only in passing known as grapholalia, or unintelligible scribbled writing attributed to the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. – Now, if this is writing is to have any merit, or at least the minimal merit due to writings vicariously inspired by the Holy Spirit, one would think that such texts would find themselve on equal footing with the Bible, provided their source could be authenticated by some authority. My only problem is, I can’t seem to find a single visual example of this bizarre phenomenon.
That being said, anyone who can find me an authentic representation of grapholalia will find themselves rewarded by yours truly with a six pack of the alcoholic beverage of his or her choice. If the finder of such a verifiable source happens him or herself to be Pentecostal, I will gladly substitute something caffeinated in the place of debaucherous drink.

▐► Atlantis◄▌
–> Donovan

▐► Diagenesis/Metamorphism & Weathering ◄▌
In geology and oceanography, diagenesis is any chemical, physical, or biological change undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and after its lithification, exclusive of surface alteration (weathering) and metamorphism. These changes happen at relatively low temperatures and pressures and result in changes to the rock’s original mineralogy and texture.
Metamorphism Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i.e without melting. There will be mineralogical, chemical and crystallographic changes.

▐► stoneage archaelogy ◄▌ [_basics_]
Stone Age: see Paleolithic period; Mesolithic period; Neolithic period.
artifact 1. an object made by a human beeing, typically one of cultural or historical interest 2. something observed in a scientific observation or experiment that is not naturally present but occurs as a result of the preparative or investigative procedure. DERIVATES: artefactual [NODE]
artefact or artifact [en.wikipedia]: In British usage, artefact is the main spelling and artifact a minor variant; however, some speakers claim to write artefact to mean “a product of artisanry” but artifact when the meaning is “a flaw in experimental results caused by the experiment itself”. In American English, artifact is the usual spelling, although it is regarded as nonstandard by some U.S. authorities. Canadians prefer artifact and Australians artefact, according to their respective dictionaries.
Cultural artifact, a man-made object which gives information about the culture of its creator and users
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made of stone. Although stone-tool-dependent cultures exist even today, most stone tools are associated with prehistoric societies that no longer exist.
The study of stone tools is often called lithic analysis by archaeologists. Stone tools may be made of chipped stone or ground stone. A person who makes chipped stone implements is called a flintknapper. In addition to tools, many minerals were used to make arrow heads and spear points.
Stone toolChipped stone tools are made from cryptocrystalline materials such as chert, radiolarite, chalcedony or obsidian via a process known as lithic reduction. One simple form of reduction is to strike stone flakes from a nucleus (core) of material using a hammerstone or similar hard hammer fabricator. If the goal of the reduction strategy is to produce flakes, the remnant lithic core may be discarded once it has become too small to use. In some strategies, however, a flintknapper reduces the core to a rough unifacial or bifacial preform, which is further reduced using soft hammer flaking techniques or by pressure flaking the edges. More complex forms of reduction include the production of highly standardized blades, which can then be fashioned into a variety of tools such as scrapers, knives, sickles and microliths. In general terms, chipped stone tools are nearly ubiquitous in all pre-metal-using societies because they are easily manufactured, the tool stone is usually plentiful, and they are easy to transport and sharpen.
stoneware is a category of clay and a type of ceramic distinguished primarily by its firing and maturation temperature (from about 1200°C to 1315 °C). In essence, it is man-made stone. One widely recognized definition is from the Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities which states, "Stoneware, which, though dense, impermeable and hard enough to resist scratching by a steel point, differs from porcelain because it is more opaque, and normally only partially vitrified. It may be vitreous or semi-vitreous. It is usually coloured grey or brownish because of impurities in the clay used for its manufacture, and is normally glazed".
In contrast, earthenware is fired at lower temperatures and is not impervious to liquids. Porcelain, which some consider to be a type of stoneware was first produced in China, is distinguished as being whiter than stoneware and always vitreous. Kaolin, or China Clay, which occurs in various parts of the world, has a lower content of impurities than many other clays. It is also fired to a vitreous state, transforming the constituent silica into glass. Some porcelain bodies are translucent after firing. Firing a piece of pottery to too high a temperature will result in warping or melting. Vitreous clay bodies can be made at different temperatures ranges, but they are typically fired in the stoneware/porcelain range. Fired stoneware absorbs up to 5% water, porcelain 0%, and earthenware up to 10%. Earthenware, when moist, is typically not freeze resistant.
A Chinese stoneware vase from the Song Dynasty, 11th century.Clay refers to group of minerals that generally exhibit plasticity when mixed with water, and which chemically primarily consist of alumina and silica. Potters refer to combinations of clays mixed with other materials as clay bodies. Different kinds of clay bodies are created by mixing additives, such as feldspar, grog, quartz, flint, many other minerals are used and these can include spodumene, wollastonite to modify clays. Clay bodies can thereby be formulated to fire at a range of temperatures. Darker clays often contain iron and other metal oxide impurities. The clay used for porcelain and white stoneware clay bodies contain very little of these impurities.
Glaze may be applied to stoneware pottery before a second firing at a different temperature, or a glaze may be applied before a single, raw firing. Salt-glazed stoneware became the dominant houseware of nineteenth century America.
vitrify convert (something) into glass or a glasslike substance, typically by exposure to heat ORIGIN from French vitrifier and Latin vitrum = ‘glass’ DERIVATES vitrifaction, vitrifiable, vitrification
vitriform adj. having the form or appearance of glass
vitreous like glass in appearance or physical properties
vitrescent capable of or susceptible of being turned into glass
pyrometallurgy the branch of science and technology with the use of high temperatures to extract and purify metals
pyrolysisnoun decomposition brought about by high temperatures –> pyrolytic
pyrolyse (US pyrolyze) verb Chemistry make or become decomposed by through heating to high temperature ORIGIN: 1920s: from pyrolysis on the pattern of analysis
pyrotechny historical the use of fire in alchemy
blast furnace Hochofen smelting furnace Schmelzofen
iron pyrites noun see
pyrites a shiny yellow mineral consisting of iron disulphide and typically occurring as intersecting cubic crystals. See also copper pyrites
Lasur: varnish, (coloured) glaze
Calcium Oxide Calcination of limestone is one of the first chemical reactions discovered by man and was known in prehistory.
As hydrated or slaked lime, Ca(OH)2 (mineral name: portlandite), it is used in mortar and plaster to increase the rate of hardening. Hydrated lime is very simple to make as lime is a basic anhydride and reacts vigorously with water. Lime is also used in glass production and its ability to react with silicates is also used in modern metal production (steel, magnesium, aluminium and other non-ferrous metals) industries to remove impurities as slag.
Neolithic (wikipedia)

▐► linguistics ◄▌
☇= lightning, flash; ☈ = thunderstorm
“lightning struck the magick purse” (JDM)
hafted hand-chisel KNIFE fired & glazed »Martial Stoneware«
impregnable stoneware artifact ►hilted hammer/dagger◄ & ►hafted knife/saw◄ (Sept. 14th)
adamant adjective: refusing to be persuaded or to change one’s mind, noun: archaic a legendary rock or mineral to which many, often contradictory, properties were attributed, formerly associated with diamond or lodestone – DERIVATES adamance, adamancy, adamantly ORIGIN greek adamas ‘untameable, invincible’ (later used to denote the hardest metal or stone, hence diamond). The phrase to be adamant dates from the 1930s, although adjectival use had been implied in such collocations as ‘an adamant heart’ since the 16th century.
adamantine poetic/literary unbreakable
lodestone a piece of magnetite or other magnetized mineral, able to be used as magnet —> biomagnetism
scale each of the small, thin horny or bony plates protecting the skin of fish and reptiles, typically overlapping one another 3. [mass noun] a flaky deposit, in particular: a white deposit formed in a kettle, boiler etc. by the evaporation of water containing lime, tartar formed on teeth, a coating formed on heated metal
verb: 1. remove scales or scales from 2. form scales (especially of the skin
scale armour armour consisting of small overlapping plates of metal, leather or horn
backbord(s) on the port side steuerbord(s) to starboard
cradle (from German Kratte = ‘basket’) figurative be the place of origin of, e.g. the acropolis was a cradle hill.
impregnable adj. (of a fortified position) unable to be captured or broken into ORIGIN: lt. prehendere ‘take’
impregnate verb 1. (usu. be impregnated with) soak or saturate with a substance 2. make pregnant (lt. impregnare)
missile an object which is forcibly propelled at a target, either by hand or from a mechanical weapon; a weapon that is self-propelled or directed by remote control, carrying conventional or nuclear explosive
missilery the study of the use and characteristics of missiles 2 missiles collectively
dart a small pointed missile that can be thrown or fired, verb: move or run somewhere suddenly or rapidly, archaic: throw (a missile); ORIGIN from Old French accusative of darz, dars, from a West Germanic word meaning ‘spear, lance’
shuttle short for space shuttle ORIGIN old english scytel ‘dart,missile’, of Germanic origin; compare with Old Norse scutill ‘harpoon‘; related to ‘shoot’. [NODE]
harpoon (16th Oct,01:16) a barbed spear-like missile attached to a long rope or thrown by hand or fired from gun, used for catching whales and other large sea creatures ORIGIN early 17th cent (denoting barbed dart or spear); from French harpon, from harpe ‘dog’s claw,clamp’ via Latin from Greek harpê = ‘sickle’
keel the lengthwise timber or steel structure along the base of a ship, in some vessels extended downwards as a blade or ridge to increase stability ORIGIN: from old Norse kjǫlr
verb: turn over on its side; capside –> keeled (adjective)
sheath knife
knife Definition: cutter; Synonyms: bait chopper, bayonet, blade, bolo, cutlass, cutter, cutting edge, dagger, edge, frog sticker, lance, lancet, machete, ooloo, point, ripper, sabre, scalpel, scimitar, scythe, shank, shiv, sickle, skewer, skiver, steel, stiletto, switchblade, sword, tickler, ulul
scalpel a knife with a small sharp, sometimes detachable blade, as used by surgeon ORIGIN Latin scalpellum, diminutive of scalprum form scalpere ‘to scratch’
edge (lt. acies); edge-tool: a handworked or machine-operated cutting tool
haft the handle of a knife, axe or spear
verb haft [with obj.] [often as adj. hafteed] provide (a blade, axe head or spearhead) with a haft.
tool devic or implement, especially one held in hand, used to carry out a particular function
tool steel hard steel of a quality used for making cutting tools
insignia (en.wikipedia) is a symbol or token of personal power, status or office, or of an official body of government or jurisdiction. Insignia are especially used as an emblem of a specific or general authority.
Scythia an ancient region of SE Europe and Asia. The Scythian Empire which existed between the 8th and 2nd centuries BC, was centered on the northern shores of the Black Sea and extended from southern Russia to the borders of Persia. [NODE p.1675]
Hellenic adjective Greek, (Archaeology) relating to or denoting Iron Age and Classical Greek culture (between Helladic and Hellenistic) [NODE p.853]
Ares war god, roman equivalent Mars
Mars 1. (mythology) most important Roman god after Jupiter (cf. the month March and the city Marseille)
2. Astronomy a small reddish (iron rich minerals covering the surface) planet which is the fourth in order from the sun. Has two satellites: Phobos & Deimos.
martial of or appropriate to war, warlike Martian a hypothetical or fictional inhabitant of Mars
»oh the iron will and the iron hand
well alas we’ve seen it all before
knights in armour, days for yore
the same old fears and the same old crimes
we haven’t changed since ancient times
Iron Hand (Dire Straits Lyrics)
Six Blade Knife: hammer/baubón/knife/pestle/saw/boat

all-purpose – synomyma: versatile, protean, mercurial …, fickle changing frequently
mercurial 1. (of a person) subject to sudden or unpredictable changes of mood or mind (this sense dates from the mid 17th cent. 2.) containing the element mercury [NODE]
Odin —>Mercury (eloquence,trading,thieving,skill,herald and messenger of the gods –> Hermes Trismegistus: a legendary figure regarded by Neoplatonists and others as the author of certain works on astrology, magic and alchemy ORIGIN: ‘thrice-greatest-Hermes, in reference to Thoth, identified with Hermes.
facet one side of something manysided, especially of a cut gem
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Sept 5th 2007, uploaded in two colors (10 views til Sept. 10th–>deleted).
Sept 11th 2007, 03:05 uploaded a second time, now with 103.317 colours, after two hours of lucubrations with Photoshop’s Lasso-Tool ….
Sept 14th 2007,10h: Telephone call from brother Chr. Wants to do me a favour offering to flog the antique via his ebay-account for an amount of 200 €. I refused, arguing that it was at least 3000 years old.

Events calendar: Starts Saturday, April 12
Free museum day — Raven Hill Discovery Center will host its monthly free second Saturday noon-4 pm Saturday, April 12, at the facility, 4737 Fuller Road, in rural Wilson Township between East Jordan and Boyne City. Indoor museum … Speaker — The …
Read more on Petoskey News-Review

What's on for Saturday, April 12 and Sunday, April 13, 2014
FAREHAM: Fort Nelson, Portsdown Hill Road (PO17 6AN). …. Charity performance of this comedy by David Tristram, presented by the Highbury Players, in aid the Brain Tumour Research Society. … GOSPORT: Gosport Discovery Centre, High Street.
Read more on Portsmouth News

Pilgrim Hall Museum's April lecture series
PLYMOUTH – The Plymouth Cordage Historical Society will meet in the museum at 5:30 p.m. Wednesday, April 9, at Cordage Park, the regularly scheduled meeting held the second Wednesday of the month. …. Market is teaming up with Plimoth Plantation to …
Read more on Wicked Local Plymouth

About the Hollister 2009 Playlist?

Question by Zac E: About the Hollister 2009 Playlist?
What was the playlist before the new playlist with the popular song touch and go? it has some good songs! can you name some of them. thanks!

Best answer:

Answer by John
“Good Things Get Better” – Keaton Simons
“Where Are You Now” – Honor Society
“Touch and Go” – Swingfly
“One Day Like This” – Elbow
“Going Away” – Meg & Dia
“Like A Spoke On A Wheel” – The Little Ones
“The Queen and I” – Gym Class Heroes
“On Vacation” – Aimee Allen
“Staring Down” – Collective Soul
“Digital Love” – Bronze Radio Return
“Ain’t No Rest For The Wicked” – Cage The Elephant
“Let’s Stop Calling It Love” – Mozella
“Still Have My Heart” – Caitlyn Crosby
“Every Time You Lie” – Demi Lovato
“Fold In Your Hands” – Passion Pit
“Brand New Me” – Colbie Caillat
“A Little Bit of Riddim” – Michael Franti & Spearhead
“Fold In Your Hands” – Passion Pit
“Chasing You” – Mark Rosas
“The Black Dress” – The Higher
“Melody” – Kate Earl
“Another Lover [Dimitri From Paris 80's Throwback Remix (Radio Edit)]” – Tortured Soul
“How Beautiful” – Prozzac
“Run For the Hills” – Sister Hazel

Add your own answer in the comments!

A Brief History of Fireplaces Down Through the Ages

Fireplaces are everywhere in today’s world and we take them for granted. But when did they begin? How have they changed over the years? And what is their status today? These are some of the questions we will set out to answer in this Brief History of Fireplaces Down Through The Ages.

A Million Years Ago

Though we may think of fireplaces (translated from Latin as a “hotbed”) as an invention that has evolved over the last few hundred years, they have been used by every culture in the world in some form or other for over 1 million years. The first fire pits dug by the caveman are considered fireplaces even though they were simple holes placed in the ground or in their caves. These “fireplaces” were used for warmth on cold days and nights along with cooking. They were also the center for the gathering of people. These fire pits were in the center of an area. This allowed for the maximum number of people to gather around and experience the heat. The problem with a fire pit in a cave or any other enclosed structure is you need a way to let the smoke escape. With the first straw huts the smoke was able to escape through the tiny opens in the straw. Or, as in the case of Indian tipis, an opening was placed in the top of the structure to let the smoke escape. This lasted for thousands of years.


Around the 1100′s the fireplaces moved from the middle of the dwelling to a position against a wall and in this century the chimney began to come into use. About this time you start seeing fire hoods (is this time true???). At first these were purely functional but eventually took on an ornamental purpose also.


When buildings started having second stories people wanted fireplaces on the second floor also. These early fireplaces vented the smoke out of the building horizontally and since smoke wants to move vertically it was just as likely to come back into the room. Now the real use of the chimney came into play. This device allowed the smoke to rise vertically and flow out of the building. The first and second floors would share a common chimney structure. The chimney was a critical innovation. About this time architects began to seriously study fireplace design.


Sir Christopher Wren, one of the greatest English architects and the re-designer of St. Paul’s cathedral in London, began to design fireplaces to go with the look of the room. Under Wren fireplaces were no longer objects with no design ties to the rest of the room. Now the fireplace became an architectural feature of the room.
In 1678, near the end of his life, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, a nephew of Charles I of England, discovered that raising the frame used for holding the burning fuel allowed more air circulation. Now the air could get underneath the fire and fuel it. His design also included a switchable baffle to allow the air to flow up, then down, then up again. This meant that hot gases had longer to travel before being completely burnt thereby producing more heat.


In the 1740s a prominent American, living in Philadelphia, named Benjamin Franklin invented a unique stove that became known as the Franklin stove. This moved the heat source back into the middle of the room which helped in heating the whole room more evenly. The stove was made out of cast iron. This continued to radiate heat long after the fire was out. The stove had more advanced features than Prince Rupert’s discovery. The Franklin stove allowed the hot gases to travel even further and this was more heat efficient. A heat vent at the top allowed the heated air to escape into the room. This provided convection along with radiated heat.
The Franklin stove had a flaw though. The smoke was vented from the bottom and air could not be drawn in. Another Philadelphian named David Rittenhouse added an L-shaped stovepipe to move the air through the fire and vent the smoke out through the chimney. This vastly improved the performance of the Franklin stove and by the end of the 1700′s the stove was being used throughout the new country.

In the late 1700s Count Rumford (Sir Benjamin Thompson, born in the United States and later moved to Bavaria) designed the first fireplace with a tall and shallow firebox. The firebox reflected heat more efficiently and provided a much better way for smoke to escape. Count Rumford’s design is considered the foundation of modern fireplaces. His design led to a decrease risk of chimney fire and allowed the chimney to be placed in the wall of the home. Before this chimney’s were designed to be kicked away from the home when they caught fire!

The industrial revolution led to large scale housing developments that brought about the standardization of fireplaces. The best known fireplace designers of this time were the Adam Brothers architects. They perfected a style of fireplace that was used for generations. It was a smaller and visually lighter fireplace and emphasis was placed on the quality of the materials.


By this century the basic structure of the fireplace was in place. It consisted of two parts – the surround and the insert. The surround is the mantle and sides and was usually made of wood, marble and granite. The insert is the part of the fireplace where the fire is burned. This part was constructed of cast iron and sometimes decorated with various tiles. The Victorian era viewed fireplaces as adding a cozy, quaint environment to homes. A beautiful fireplace added a touch of class to the home.

Early 20th Century

After World War I the Art Deco movement focused on function over form. It emphasized modern aesthetic values and fireplaces built during this period reflected this trend. Then with the wide spread destruction of Europe caused by World War II there became a real urgency for housing and with that began the development of prefabricated electric fire and fireplaces.

Mid-20th Century

With the introduction of central heating the fireplace became more of a decorative statement in the home rather than a source of necessary heat. But the recognition of the importance of a hearth to family and home began to be acknowledged and there was a refocus on more traditional fireplace design. Today a fireplace in the home provides heat and an architectural element. In many homes the fireplace is the center for social gatherings. They are appealing since they add a certain amount of style to a home. And who doesn’t find a fire mesmerizing and relaxing. In our post industrial, modern society their purpose has evolved from providing necessary heat and cooking to a symbol of warmth and love.

Terri Young
Fireplace Tools at ToolsForFireplaces.com
Fireplace Tools, Fireplace Screens, Fireplace Accessories

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What is there to do in Philadelphia?

Question by formerplaid: What is there to do in Philadelphia?
We will be taking my three year old to Sesame Place next September and would like to know what else there is to do or see for families. My husband would like to see a Phillies game and some of the city’s historical sites. Any other tips?

Best answer:

Answer by RestAssured
National Constitution Center, Philadelphia
The National Constitution Center in historic Philadelphia is America’s most interactive history museum. Located just two blocks from the Liberty Bell and Independence Hall, it is the only museum devoted to the U.S. Constitution and the story of we, the people.
Attraction type: History museum; Specialty museum

Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia
An impressive collection of European art housed in a stately, neoclassical building.
Attraction type: Art museum; Landmark/point of interest

Mutter Museum, Philadelphia
This museum, located at the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, showcases medical oddities.
Attraction type: Science museum; Specialty museum

Independence Hall, Philadelphia
Both the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution were signed in this historic building.
Attraction type: Historic site; History museum; Architectural building; Government building

Eastern State Penitentiary, Philadelphia
The Eastern State Penitentiary is a former state prison in the United States. Today, the Eastern State Penitentiary operates as a museum and historic site, open from April 1 through November 30. In addition, it holds many special events throughout the year. Each July, Eastern State offers a Bastille Day celebration. In October, it offers a Terror Behind the Walls haunted house.
Attraction type: Old jail; Historic site

Liberty Bell Center, Philadelphia
Though it can no longer be rung, the bell remains a lasting American symbol of freedom.
Attraction type: Landmark/point of interest; Historic walking area; Historic site; Monument

Independence National Historical Park, Philadelphia
One of the most famous square miles in the United States, the park is home to the Liberty Bell, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and Independence Hall.
Attraction type: Historic site; Historic walking area; National park

Reading Terminal Market, Philadelphia
Featuring over 80 concessions, this historic market has something for even the most eclectic of tastebuds.
Attraction type: Flea/street market

Philadelphia Zoo, Philadelphia
America’s oldest zoo opened in 1874, and today houses more than 1,600 animals from around the world.
Attraction type: Zoo

Fairmount Park, Philadelphia
One of the world’s largest municipal parks, a sprawling 9,200 acres contains several million trees and America’s oldest zoo.
Attraction type: Park; Jogging path/track; Urban park

South Street, Philadelphia
Known as Philadelphia’s liveliest and funkiest strip, the street has more than 300 stores and restaurants.
Attraction type: Street

Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia
A library thats more a museum. Its collection includes the original manuscript of James Joyces Ulysses, first editions of Melville, drawings by Maurice Sendak and even a reproduction of Marianne Moores Greenwich Village study.
Attraction type: Specialty museum; Library

Please Touch Museum, Philadelphia
Hands-on museum where adults and children can learn and explore together.
Attraction type: Children’s museum; Science museum

Italian Market, Philadelphia
A colorful outdoor market specializing in Italian foodstuffs.
Attraction type: Neighborhood; Flea/street market

Rittenhouse Square, Philadelphia
People-watching is the favorite pastime at this busting park, with loads of benches to accommodate weary pedestrians.
Attraction type: Town center/square/plaza

Powel House, Philadelphia
The Georgian mansion of well-to-do colonial Samuel Powel, who served as mayor of Philadelphia. Home also to the sinful dinners, as John Adams called it, the fabulous dinners and dances Powel hosted, inviting the founding fathers and foreign dignitaries.
Attraction type: Historic home

Franklin Court, Philadelphia
With levels above and below ground, the complex houses a theater and museum devoted to Franklin’s life and inventions.
Attraction type: History museum; Historic home; Historic site

Masonic Temple, Philadelphia
“The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania” is an example of elegant architecture. Inside, the lodge is adorned with lovely artwork.
Attraction type: Religious site; Library

Elfreth’s Alley, Philadelphia
America’s oldest residential street was built in 1702 and is now designated a National Historic Landmark.
Attraction type: Historic site; Street

Betsy Ross House, Philadelphia
Historic Georgian-style home where the first American flag was made pays tribute to the creator of the Stars and Stripes.
Attraction type: Historic home

Know better? Leave your own answer in the comments!

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