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Image from page 522 of “Triumphs and wonders of the 19th century, the true mirror of a phenomenal era, a volume of original, entertaining and instructive historic and descriptive writings, showing the many and marvellous achievements which distinguish an
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Title: Triumphs and wonders of the 19th century, the true mirror of a phenomenal era, a volume of original, entertaining and instructive historic and descriptive writings, showing the many and marvellous achievements which distinguish an hundred years of material, intellectual, social and moral progress ..
Year: 1899 (1890s)
Authors: Boyd, James Penny, 1836-1910
Subjects: Progress Inventions
Publisher: Philadelphia, Pa., A. J. Holman & Co
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation
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Text Appearing Before Image:
A merchant marine to-day has fully five times the efficiency that one withan equal tonnage had a century ago. We shall better see how this has beenbrought about, by briefly reviewing the technical revolution which has takenplace in ocean navigation during the past seventy years. THE CENTURYS COMMERCIAL PROGRESS 493 II. THE CENTURYS TECHNICAL REVOLUTION IN COMMERCE. During the first four decades of this century the wooden sailing vessel wasthe sole carrier of ocean traffic, and in the construction and operation of suchships the Americans had special advantages and manifested peculiar ingenu-ity. For forty years the American sailing clipper, whose fine lines made itstanch and speedy, had been li the type and model of excellence in ship-building ; but before the middle of the century the supremacy of thewooden clipper-ship had been destroyed, and the technical superiority ofsteam and iron had been demonstrated. There are six distinct steps in the technical evolution of the ocean liner of
Text Appearing After Image:
A CLIPPER SHIP. the present day,-six changes which mark the epochs in the history of thesubstitution of steam and steel for sail and wood. The first step m the evo-lution was taken when the steam engine and the paddle-wheel took the placeof wind and sails. Like most epoch-making changes, this one was madeslowly; indeed, it was preceded by thirty years of hesitation and conserva-tive experimentation. Kobert Fulton, taking advantage of ideas and planswhich he had obtained in Europe, produced his Clermont m 1807, and de-monstrated the practicability of the steamship for river traffic, live yearslater, Henry Bell of Scotland constructed the Comet, the first passengersteamboat built in Europe, a vessel only forty feet long, ten and one half feetin width, and of four horse-power. The Clermont was somewhat larger,having a length of 130 feet, a beam of eighteen feet, and a hold six feet indepth. She succeeded in making five miles an hour against stream, lnese 494 TRIUMPHS AND WONDERS OF THE X
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