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The World Affairs Council presents The Hon. Jeb Bush, September 21, 2012

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The World Affairs Council presents The Hon. Jeb Bush, September 21, 2012
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Image by World Affairs Council of Philadelphia
As a successful two-term governor, Jeb Bush made a significant and positive impact on education in the state of Florida. Governor Bush visited the Council on Friday, September 21, 2012 to speak to the importance of raising expectations for our students, holding schools accountable, rewarding great teachers, and harnessing technology in order to educate and prepare all of America’s students for leadership and success in the 21st century economy.

Image from page 931 of “The Street railway journal” (1884)
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Identifier: streetrailwayjo121896newy
Title: The Street railway journal
Year: 1884 (1880s)
Authors:
Subjects: Street-railroads Electric railroads Transportation
Publisher: New York : McGraw Pub. Co.
Contributing Library: Smithsonian Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Smithsonian Libraries

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Text Appearing Before Image:
patents issued to Nikola Tesla for the POLYPHASE ALTERNATING SYSTEM,now recognized to be the most successful system for lighting and power purposes. We furnish complete lines of apparatus for the perfect equipment of ISOLATED PLANTS for Hotels, Office Buildings, Flatsand Factories. STANDARD SYSTEMS for distribution of lights and power in LARGE MANUFACTURING ESTABLISHMENTS, MILLS and MINES. WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC RAILWAY SYSTEM,the Most Durable, Economical and Efficient on the market. NEW YORK, 120 Broadway. PITTSBURG, Westinghouse Building-. CHARLOTTE, N. C, 36-38 College St.BOSTON, Exchange Building. BUFFALO, Erie County Bank Building. SYRACUSE, N. Y., Bastable BuHding CHICAGO, New York Life Building. PHILADELPHIA, Girard Building. SAN FRANCISCO, Mills Building. TACOMA, WASH., 102 S. 10th Street. ST. LOUIS, American Central Buildins. WASHINGTON, D. C, 1333 P St N it 52 STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. [Vol. XII. No. i. J. G. BRILL COMPANY, mm nvim PHILADELPHIA CAR WORKS. 11 111IIJI U lllUUliU

Text Appearing After Image:
Points of Superiority. Simplicity—Fewer pans than any other style. Less repairs and consequent cheap cost of maintenance. DUPABILITY & SOLIDITY—Axle box frame is a solid forging, free from bolts, nuts and rivets. Fracture of this frame an impossibility and it cannot loosen and rattle.POPULARITY—Two Brill trucks in operation to-day against one of all patterns of other makes of trucks combined.

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Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

42 – View form Hotel Roof
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The view from the hotel rooftop terrace

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Roses were waiting for me in my hotel room! #throughglass
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Pennsylvania – Philadelphia – Liberty Place
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Liberty Place is a skyscraper complex in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. The complex is composed of a 61-story 945-foot (288 m) skyscraper called One Liberty Place, a 58-story 848-foot (258 m) skyscraper called Two Liberty Place, a two-story shopping mall called the Shops at Liberty Place, and the 14-story Westin Philadelphia Hotel. When One Liberty Place was completed, it was the tallest skyscraper in Philadelphia.

(Source: Wikipedia)

aunt lizard
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November 11, 2005

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19c – Donovan & Seaman’s Co – 743 S Broadway – Showroom
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Image by Kansas Sebastian
West Adams Heights

“Nowadays we scarcely notice the high stone gates which mark the entrances on Hobart, Harvard, and Oxford streets, south of Washington Boulevard. For one thing, the traffic is too heavy, too swift; and then, again, the gates have been obscured by intrusions of shops and stores. At the base of the stone pillars appears the inscription “West Adams Heights.” There was a time when these entranceways were formidable and haughty, for they marked the ways to one of the first elite residential areas in Los Angeles. . . In the unplanned early-day chaos of Los Angeles, West Adams Heights was obviously something very special, an island in an ocean of bungalows—approachable, but withdrawn and reclusive—one of the few surviving examples of planned urban elegance of the turn of the century.”

– Carey McWilliams, “The Evolution of Sugar Hill,” Script, March, 1949: 30.

Today West Adams Heights is still obviously something special. The past sixty years, however, have not been kind. In 1963 the Santa Monica Freeway cut through the heart of West Adams Heights, dividing the neighborhood, obscuring its continuity. In the 1970’s the city paved over the red brick streets and removed the ornate street lighting. After the neighborhood’s zoning was changed to a higher density, overzealous developers claimed several mansions for apartment buildings. Despite these challenges, however, “The Heights,” as the area was once known, has managed to regain some of its former elegance.

The West Adams Heights tract was laid out in 1902, in what was then a wheat field on the western edge of town. Although the freeway now creates an artificial barrier, the original neighborhood boundaries were Adams Boulevard, La Salle Ave, Washington Boulevard, and Western Avenue. Costly improvements were integrated into the development, such as 75-food wide boulevards (which were some of the first contoured streets not to follow the city grid), lots elevated from the sidewalk, ornate street lighting, and large granite monuments with red-brass electroliers at the entrance to every street. These upgrades increased the lot values, which helped ensure the tract would be an enclave for the elite.

One early real estate ad characterized the neighborhood stating: “West Adams Heights needs no introduction to the public: it is already recognized as being far superior to any other tract. Its high and slightly location, its beautiful view of the city and mountains make t a property unequaled by any other in the city.”

The early residents’ were required to sign a detailed restrictive covenant. This hand-written document required property owners to build a “first-class residence,” of at least two stories, costing no less than two-thousand dollars (at a time when a respectable home could be built for a quarter of that amount, including the land), and built no less than thirty-five feet from the property’s primary boundary. Common in early twentieth century, another clause excluded residents from selling or leasing their properties to non-Caucasians.

By the mid 1930’s, however, most of the restrictions had expired. Between 1938 and 1945 many prominent African-Americans began to make “The Heights” their home. According to Carey McWilliams, West Adams Heights became known “Far and wide as the famous Sugar Hill section of Los Angeles,” and enjoyed a clear preeminence over Washington’s smart Le Droit Park, St. Louis’s Enright Street, West Philadelphia, Chicago’s Westchester, and Harlem’s fabulous Sugar Hill.

West Adams Heights, now also known as Sugar Hill, played a major role in the Civil Rights movement in Los Angeles. In 1938 Norman Houston, president of the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company, and an African-American, purchased a home at 2211 South Hobart Boulevard. Legal Action from eight homeowners quickly ensued. During that period, other prominent African-Americans began to make Sugar Hill their home – including actress Hattie McDaniels, dentists John and Vada Summerville, actress Louise Beavers, band leader Johnny Otis, and performers Pearl Baily and Ethel Waters, and many more. On December 6, 1945, the “Sugar Hill Cases” were heard before Judge Thurmond Clark, in LA Superior Court. He made history by become the first judge in America to use the 14th Amendment to disallow the enforcement of covenant race restrictions. The Los Angeles Sentinel quoted Judge Clark: “This court is of the opinion that it is time that [African-Americans] are accorded, without reservations and evasions, the full rights guaranteed them under the 14th Amendment.” Gradually, over the last century people of nearly ever background have made historic West Adams their home.

The northern end of West Adams Heights is now protected as part of the Harvard Heights Historic Preservation Overlay Zone (HPOZ). The Historic West Adams area of Los Angeles (which includes West Adams Heights) boasts the highest concentration of turn-of-the-century homes west of the Mississippi, as well as the highest concentration of National Historic Landmarks, National Register of Historic Places, National Historic Districts, State Historic Landmarks, Los Angeles Cultural-Historic Monuments, and Historic Preservation Overlay Zones in the city. The entirety of West Adams Heights should be nominated as a National Register Historic District, for the quality of homes, the prominence of the architects, notoriety of the people who lived in the neighborhood, and the role it played in civil rights.

Perhaps a quote adapted from a fireplace mantle in the Frederick Rindge mansion best symbolizes the optimism which exists in West Adams: “California Shall be Ours as Long as the Stars Remain.”

19 – James G & Rose Ganahl Donovan Residence – 2179 W 20th St, Moved from 2202 S Western Ave – 1903 – Robert Brown Young
(Now located in Western Heights Historic Preservation Overlay Zone & 20th Street Historic District, National Register Historic District No. 91000915)

James Donovan began as an apprentice to a watch maker in Aurora, IL, working his way up to Lead Mechanic and an eventual partner in the company, before branching into jewelry on his own. Accompanied by his sister in 1894 he came to Los Angeles for a month’s long vacation. At the end he decided to stay one more week – then three more months – and then founded to stay. He began Donovan & Seaman’s Co on Spring St, near Temple, when it was the heart of the LA’s shopping district. He later moved the store to 3rd & Spring St, then 7th & Broadway. When he built his residence, he chose a prominent location, placing it directly in front of the Berkeley Square gates, on the southeast corner of Western Ave and 22nd St. The home was designed by R B Young in a Transitional Victorian/Craftsman style, leaning more toward the Victorian. Young was a prolific architect in Los Angeles, designing many homes and office buildings, including the Vickery-Brunswig Building, San Fernando Building and Clifton’s Brookdale. The house was moved to its present location in 1929 as Western Ave transitioned to a commercial thoroughfare and the street was widened.

20 – Paul W Hoffmann Residence – 1926 S Western Ave – 1904

Charles Albert Rockwell was a partner in the building firm Martin & Rockwell, and through his company built several houses in West Adams Heights, on Western Avenue, including: 1926, 1962 and 2020 S Western Ave. He himself lived at 1962 S Western Ave before moving down the street to 2020 S Western Ave. This Transitional Craftsman/Victorian house he sold to Paul Hoffmann, dealing in loans and real estate. While most of the houses along the commercial corridors have vanished, this house and a few others, have managed to survive mostly intact.

21 – Ellis Doughl and Alphonso Barmann Residence – 1934 S Western Ave – 1905

A 1905 property permit to the building firm Pool & Jones suggests this is one of the few properties in West Adams Heights built on spec (speculation of a perspective buyer). The home was purchased by Ellis Doughl – who may or may not have lived on the property. In 1911 Newton H Foster, a junior clerk for the Santa Fe, appears to be renting the property, and in 1912 the property is sold to F Barmann for ,500. The 1915 City Directory shows Alphonso (Gen Contr), Herbert (Mach), Natalie (Tchr) and Walter (Mach) Barmann at the property. They had moved from their house on the other side of the Heights at 2047 La Salle Ave. Alphanso Barmann was given the general contract for construction of the 10 story Higgins Building in 1909. The house is Transitional Craftsman/Victorian with strong Colonial influences.

22 – Hans B & Ethyleen Nielsen Residence – 2010 S Western Ave – 1911

Built in the “Elizabethan Style” common at the time, this large Transitional Craftsman/Victorian incorporates half timbering and pebble-dash stucco into the design. It appears to have been built for Hans B and Ethyleen Nielsen.

23 – The Santa Monica Freeway – 21st to 22nd Streets – Originally called the Olympic Freeway – 1964

Like a river cutting through the heart of West Adams Heights, the Olympic Freeway as it was first called claimed approximately one-third of the homes, and some of the most significant. The entire block between 21st and 22nd Streets, on Western, Harvard, Hobart and LaSalle were demolished for the project. The prestigious “Harvard Circle” part of West Adams Heights was completely wiped off the map, with only vague and cryptic references left in newspapers and books. This canyon creates a permanent barrier in a once cohesive neighborhood. Plans for the Olympic Freeway were laid out in the 1947, coincidentally occurring a year after racial covenants were determined to be illegal and African-Americans gained the rights to live in the neighborhood. For almost 20 years, until the freeway’s completion in 1964, black leaders called on the city and the State of California to move the path of the freeway to Washington, Venice or Pico, to spare West Adams Heights, or Sugar Hill as it was becoming known. However, the commission overseeing the project ignored them. Even Mayor Bowron participated in efforts to spare Berkeley Square and West Adams Heights, but members of the commission were unmoved. In the early 1960’s the construction equipment arrived, the houses were removed, and one of LA’s most prestigious enclaves was divided.

24 – Kate A Kelley Residence – 2205 S Hobart Blvd – 1905 – Sumner P Hunt and Arthur Wesley Eager

The architecture team of Hunt & Eager designed this home for Kate A Kelley, the widow of John Kelley. She lived there with her sister Jennie MacKay. By 1915 the house was owned by Abram C Denman, Jr., th vice president and general manager of the Southern California Iron and Steele Company. As a boarding house run by the Agape Mission, the house has fallen on hard times, with stucco, an enclosed porch and aluminum windows. But with some time, money and love, the house could be restored.

25 – John & Gertrude D Kahn and Norman O & Edythe Houston Residence – 2211 S Hobart Blvd – 1911 – Milwaukee Building Company

The Kahn-Houston Residence is arguably one of the most important houses in West Adams Heights. It deserves to be a National Register of Historic places. Unfortunately, at this time (2014) its fate is uncertain. The Agape Mission, which has run an illegal boarding house from the property and from 2205 S Hobart, has recently been closed and both properties appear to be in receivership. This house is so important to the historic fabric of the community because it was the home of Norman O Houston, President of the Golden State Mutual – an insurance company for black Americans who could not obtain insurance from white-owned companies at an affordable price. See the Wikipedia article: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_O._Houston In 1938 Houston (then Vice-President) purchased the home. Wealthy white owners of the neighborhood prevented him from living in his home by re-establishing the “West Adams Heights Improvement Association,” and attempting to codify the rule preventing non-Caucasians from owning or renting property. In 1945 Norman Houston and the other black property owners won the right in court to legally live in the neighborhood. The house had been originally built for John Kahn, an early pioneer to Los Angeles who first came to Oakland, CA, around 1889 with his brother and opened a dry goods store. John moved to Los Angeles 3 years later and opened a large store in the ground floor of the Nadeau Hotel at 1st & Spring. Around 1897 he sold the enterprise and in 1899 incorporated with Jakob Beck to form Kahn-Beck, manufacturing food stuff, including: “All kinds of candy, macaroni and pastas of all kinds.” The company then grew into one of the largest biscuit making companies as the Kahn-Beck Cracker Company, or Kahn Beck Biscuit Company, and Angelus Biscuit Company. John Kahn passed in 1919. The house built in 1911 by the Milwaukee Building Company is in an avant-garde Spanish/Prairie style.

26 – James D & May C Smith and Louise Beavers-Moore & LeRoy C Moore Residence – 2219 S Hobart Blvd – 1904 – Frank M Tyler

For his first home in West Adams Heights, pioneer real estate developer Richard D Richards commissioned Frank M Tyler to build a 16-room English-styled mansion in 1904. Richards sold the property to James D Smith two years later, moving to another Tyler mansion at 2237 S Hobart Blvd and then to 2208 S Western Ave, where the Richards family lived until 1925. James Smith was proprietor of the James Smith & Co, a clothing store of the finest “ready-made” Franklin Brand clothing for men, established in 1902. For years the company operated from the Bryson Block, before relocating to the more fashionable Broadway. In the early 1940’s Louise Beavers joined Norman Houston (2211 S Hobart Ave) and Hattie McDaniel (2203 S Harvard Blvd) in the Heights. Louise Beavers was a talented actress, acclaimed for her role in Imitation of Life as Delilah. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise_Beavers Louise was married to her second husband, LeRoy C Moore in 1952. LeRoy was a well-known interior decorator. Together the two lived at this house until Louise’s death in October, 1962, and LeRoy’s death four months later in February, 1963. At first glass the Smith-Beavers Residence appears to be completely remodeled, but comparing it to original renderings little has changed. The front left dormer is missing and at some point someone thought it would be a good idea to cover the house in Sears siding (the original siding is probably underneath). But other than having been divided, the house’s integrity remains intact.

27 – Ellen H (Mrs. Melville Morton) Johnston and Curtis & Ellen Williams Residence (Demolished) – 2237 S Hobart Blvd – 1906 – Frank M Tyler

The second residence in West Adams Heights built for Richard D and Cynthia J Richards, in 1906, has been replaced with a 1950’s apartment building. The first Richards home was located at 2219 S Hobart Blvd (the Smith-Beavers Residence). They lived at this house less than two years before relocating to 2208 S Western Ave, where the couple lived out their lives. This home was sold to Ellen H Johnston (Mrs Melville Morton). Melville Morton Johnston may have died April 3, 1892. If I’ve researched the correct person, he was originally from Clifton, Stanton Island, New York. (I mean, how many men named Melville Morton Johnston can there be? Right?) In 1911 Mrs. Johnson sold the house to Curtis Williams. Curtis died at the home in 1959, at the age of 89. Curtis Williams was a pioneering lumberman who came to Los Angeles in 1895. He was born in Oakland and reared in San Diego. He was an early member of the Los Angeles Country Club, the Jonathan Club, and University Club. The house was a rustic Transitional Victorian/Craftsman, having both elements, designed by Frank M. Tyler. It was a perfectly balanced house, whose presence looks more like it would have been designed by John Austin.

28 – Benjamin Johnson Residence – 2241 S Hobart Blvd – 1909 – G A Howard, Jr.

In 1909 Benjamin Johnson commissioned G A Howard to build this charming Transitional Craftsman/Victorian in an English Style. The cost in 1909 was a mere ,000. As president of the Los Angeles Public Market Co (a company owned by Pacific Electric), he could well afford the cost – as well as a domestic, cook and chauffeur. What he could not afford, however, was a scandal involving his under-aged rebel daughter Estelle. In 1914, on a return trip from finishing school in Washington, DC, after a brief visit to her grandfather in Chicago. For eluded reasons, she was hastily married to Mr. Terrance Ryan. To employ his new son-in-law, Mr. Johnson purchased a produce company and gave Mr. Ryan a position and a promise of a bungalow. This appears not to have been enough, and the Johnsons were forced to petition the courts for the divorce of their daughter and Mr. Ryan on grounds he could not provide. The Johnsons must have been scandalized when the entire affair was laid out in the Los Angeles Times society pages.

29 – John Newton & Annie Berdella Evans Russell Jr. Residence – 2263 S Hobart Blvd – 1906

Above the portico of this residence is the address “2249” S Hobart Blvd, however its legal address (according to the tax assessor’s maps) is actually 2263 S Hobart. The confusion is understandable. The property sits on three lots from what would have been 2249 (where the house actually sits) to the actual address of 2263 (which is the furthest lot south from the house). At this time the architect is unknown, but shows the adept hand of someone like Robert D. Farquar, who designed the John and Dora Haynes mansion on Figueroa in a similar style (demolished), or B. Cooper Corbett, responsible for the magnificent Denker Mansion on Adams Blvd. The house is an Italian Villa, in a Florentine style, years before the practice of designing thematic houses became popular in Los Angeles. This was the home of John Newton Russell, Jr., an insurance man. He was raised mostly in Waco, TX, before moving to Los Angeles with his father, also in the insurance business. Russell ran the Colorado branches of the Frederick Rindge’s Conservative Life Company, before the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. When the company was absorbed into Pacific Mutual, and moved to Los Angeles, Russell was recalled from Colorado to run the “Home Office.” Mr. Russell continued his success in the insurance industry, just as his wife enjoyed great social success. In 1942, their son, John Henry Russell, established the John Newton Russell Memorial Award, as a tribute to his father and mentor, recognizing the accomplishments and contributions of made by an individual in the insurance industry. This is the highest honor awarded by the National Association of Insurance and Financial Advisors (NAIFA), given each year. NAIFA is one of the nation’s oldest and largest associations representing professionals in the insurance and financial industries.

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20th Street, between 8th & 9th Ave
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Image by Ed Yourdon
These are all "extras" that I took while I was out walking around on my "everyblock" project — not good enough to foist upon the Flickr community as a "public" photo … but pictures that probably deserve a slightly better fate than just being deleted…

***************

This set of photos is based on a very simple concept: walk every block of Manhattan with a camera, and see what happens. To avoid missing anything, walk both sides of the street.

That’s all there is to it …

Of course, if you wanted to be more ambitious, you could also walk the streets of Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island, and the Bronx. But that’s more than I’m willing to commit to at this point, and I’ll leave the remaining boroughs of New York City to other, more adventurous photographers.

Oh, actually, there’s one more small detail: leave the photos alone for a month — unedited, untouched, and unviewed. By the time I actually focus on the first of these "every-block" photos, I will have taken more than 8,000 images on the nearby streets of the Upper West Side — plus another several thousand in Rome, Coney Island, and the various spots in NYC where I traditionally take photos. So I don’t expect to be emotionally attached to any of the "every-block" photos, and hope that I’ll be able to make an objective selection of the ones worth looking at.

As for the criteria that I’ve used to select the small subset of every-block photos that get uploaded to Flickr: there are three. First, I’ll upload any photo that I think is "great," and where I hope the reaction of my Flickr-friends will be, "I have no idea when or where that photo was taken, but it’s really a terrific picture!"

A second criterion has to do with place, and the third involves time. I’m hoping that I’ll take some photos that clearly say, "This is New York!" to anyone who looks at it. Obviously, certain landscape icons like the Empire State Building or the Statue of Liberty would satisfy that criterion; but I’m hoping that I’ll find other, more unexpected examples. I hope that I’ll be able to take some shots that will make a "local" viewer say, "Well, even if that’s not recognizable to someone from another part of the country, or another part of the world, I know that that’s New York!" And there might be some photos where a "non-local" viewer might say, "I had no idea that there was anyplace in New York City that was so interesting/beautiful/ugly/spectacular."

As for the sense of time: I remember wandering around my neighborhood in 2005, photographing various shops, stores, restaurants, and business establishments — and then casually looking at the photos about five years later, and being stunned by how much had changed. Little by little, store by store, day by day, things change … and when you’ve been around as long as I have, it’s even more amazing to go back and look at the photos you took thirty or forty years ago, and ask yourself, "Was it really like that back then? Seriously, did people really wear bell-bottom jeans?"

So, with the expectation that I’ll be looking at these every-block photos five or ten years from now (and maybe you will be, too), I’m going to be doing my best to capture scenes that convey the sense that they were taken in the year 2013 … or at least sometime in the decade of the 2010’s (I have no idea what we’re calling this decade yet). Or maybe they’ll just say to us, "This is what it was like a dozen years after 9-11".

Movie posters are a trivial example of such a time-specific image; I’ve already taken a bunch, and I don’t know if I’ll ultimately decide that they’re worth uploading. Women’s fashion/styles are another obvious example of a time-specific phenomenon; and even though I’m definitely not a fashion expert, I suspected that I’ll be able to look at some images ten years from now and mutter to myself, "Did we really wear shirts like that? Did women really wear those weird skirts that are short in the front, and long in the back? Did everyone in New York have a tattoo?"

Another example: I’m fascinated by the interactions that people have with their cellphones out on the street. It seems that everyone has one, which certainly wasn’t true a decade ago; and it seems that everyone walks down the street with their eyes and their entire conscious attention riveted on this little box-like gadget, utterly oblivious about anything else that might be going on (among other things, that makes it very easy for me to photograph them without their even noticing, particularly if they’ve also got earphones so they can listen to music or carry on a phone conversation). But I can’t help wondering whether this kind of social behavior will seem bizarre a decade from now … especially if our cellphones have become so miniaturized that they’re incorporated into the glasses we wear, or implanted directly into our eyeballs.

Oh, one last thing: I’ve created a customized Google Map to show the precise details of each day’s photo-walk. I’ll be updating it each day, and the most recent part of my every-block journey will be marked in red, to differentiate it from all of the older segments of the journey, which will be shown in blue. You can see the map, and peek at it each day to see where I’ve been, by clicking on this link

URL link to Ed’s every-block progress through Manhattan

If you have any suggestions about places that I should definitely visit to get some good photos, or if you’d like me to photograph you in your little corner of New York City, please let me know. You can send me a Flickr-mail message, or you can email me directly at ed-at-yourdon-dot-com

Stay tuned as the photo-walk continues, block by block …

Liberty Bell History
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Image by Emily Barney
I didn’t really know anything about the liberty bell, so learning that it was renamed such by the abolitionist movement was interesting

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Authentic Diner Mug

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Authentic Diner Mug
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Image by MarkGregory007
I was having lunch in a local 50’s style diner when I spotted a rack of coffee cups on a shelf behind the counter. I asked the owner if I could buy one and he said, "Sure, five dollars."

This cup has the look and feel of the heavy diner mugs from the 1960’s. On the bottom it says "Homer Laughlin China, U.S.A. Lead free." I searched the internet and learned that this company was established in the 1800’s. it has a very interesting history……

COMPANY HISTORY FROM WEBSITE

Homer and Shakespeare Laughlin, two brothers from East Liverpool, Ohio, formed a partnership in 1871 to sell pottery ware, which was made in the factories located in their hometown.

The pottery industry in East Liverpool had begun in the 1840’s, manufacturing yellow ware from the rich deposits of local clay and utilizing the Ohio River to transport their products throughout the region. By 1870, public preference was shifting from the relatively crude yellow ware to a more sophisticated white ware that was being imported from England. Local potters saw the need for change and the East Liverpool City Council offered ,000 in seed money to someone who would build and operate a pottery for the production of white ware.

The Laughlin Brothers submitted a proposal which was accepted by the Council and a two-kiln plant was built on the banks of the Ohio River in 1873. The plant was built on land purchased from Benjamin Harker for 0. Mr. Harker’s pottery was located next door.

The Laughlin Brothers quickly gained a reputation for quality and, in 1876, their white granite ware won an award at the United States Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia. By 1877, Shakespeare, the younger brother, was ready to move on to pursue other interests. The business was continued as an individual enterprise as the Homer Laughlin China Works. The business continued to prosper through the 1880’s and became one of the better known manufacturers of ceramic dinnerware and toilet ware in the United States.

The Wells & Aaron Families

In 1889, a young bookkeeper from Steubenville, Ohio, William Edwin Wells, answered a classified newspaper advertisement and was hired to manage the books of the growing establishment. In a very short time, Mr. Wells was managing the business and Mr. Laughlin was able to spend time traveling with his wife.

By 1897, Homer Laughlin had decided to retire to California where his son had just graduated from Stanford University. He offered to sell the business to Mr. Wells and a financial partner, Louis I. Aaron of Pittsburgh. The sale was consummated on December 7, 1897.

With new ownership came accelerated growth. Within two years, a second plant was built in the East End of East Liverpool, expanding further to three East End plants by 1903. Key customers contributing to the company’s rapid growth included the F. W. Woolworth Company, the country’s fastest growing variety (5 & 10 cent) store chain, and the American Cereal Company of Chicago, who was packing oatmeal bowls in Mother’s Oats boxes as fast as Homer Laughlin could produce them.

The Move to Newell, WV

The partners saw the need for further expansion but there was no more room at the East End location. In 1902, a tract of land on the opposite side of the Ohio River was purchased from the Newell family. A subsidiary company, the North American Manufacturing Company was formed to develop the town, which would become Newell, West Virginia. Building lots were laid out, a water and sewer system was installed, and electric power was secured. A suspension bridge was built across the Ohio River, connecting the new community with East Liverpool and a trolley line was built to transport pottery workers across the river. During 1905 and 1906, the company constructed plant #4, which at that time, was the largest pottery plant ever built in the world. Homer Laughlin now had a combined production capacity of 300,000 pieces of ware per day (10% of the U. S. production capacity). The company’s headquarters were moved to the Newell location at the beginning of 1907.

The 1910’s

In 1911, Louis Aaron retired and was succeeded as president of Homer Laughlin by his son, Marcus Aaron. Rapid growth continued and, in 1914, plant #5 was opened with 16 additional kilns, giving the company a total of 78 ware kilns and 60 decorating kilns.

In January, 1917, W. E. Wells wrote to the Woolworth Company to recap their business for the year of 1916. He stated “I think that I may safely say that this is the first time in history that the purchases of any one concern from any one pottery firm have reached the million (dollar) mark in one year”. At an average price of 72 cents per dozen, that amounted to 16.7 million pieces of ware sold to one customer in one year.

The 1920’s

The early 1920’s marked the beginning of the most revolutionary change that had ever hit the pottery industry. Until that time, a pottery’s size was measured by the number of ware kilns that it possessed. Intermittent bottle kilns had a limited production capacity due to the length of time that it took to load the kiln, brick up the doorway, fire the kiln and bring it up to the desired temperature, fire the ware for the desired length of time, then cool the kiln, reopen the doorway and, after cooling, empty the kiln by hand. All of this required more than a week to fire a limited amount of ware. The only way that a pottery could increase it’s capacity was to build more kilns.

In the early 1920’s, continuous firing tunnel kilns were introduced to the industry. These kilns maintained their full firing temperatures constantly while cars entered one end, one after another and, three days later, fired ware exited the other end of the kiln. This was a revolutionary change in production time and the potteries with the financial resources rushed to build these new kilns.

In 1923, Homer Laughlin announced that they would build yet another new plant, this time with tunnel kilns. Plant #6 fired it’s first kiln in 1924. At about this same time, the intermittent kilns at plants 4 & 5 were replaced with tunnel kilns. In 1927, plant #7, equal in size to plant 6, was opened.

It was decided that it would not be practical to remodel the old plants in the East End and they were phased out in favor of the largest Laughlin plant yet. Plant #8 opened in December, 1929 with 800 employees in that plant alone. Initially, all of plant #8 production was allocated to make ware for Woolworth’s. Total capacity was now equal to 160 upright kilns.

1930’s & 1940’s

Almost coincidental with the opening of the last great Newell plant was the retirement of W. E. Wells in January, 1930. He was replaced as general manager by his eldest son, Joseph M. Wells, Sr.

The company had hired Frederick Hurten Rhead as design director in 1927, a post which he would hold until his death in 1942. Rhead’s 15 year reign proved to be the most prolific period of new product introductions in the company’s history. Rhead designed Virginia Rose as well as the several Eggshell shapes. Rhead’s most famous accomplishment, however, was Fiesta.
Marcus Aaron retired as president of the company in 1940 and was succeeded by his son, Marcus Lester Aaron. M. L. Aaron would serve as president for the next forty-eight years.

With Fiesta leading the way, The Homer Laughlin China Company continued to flourish until the onset of World War II. During the war years, much of the company’s production was shifted to the production of china for our armed forces. After the war, production returned to normal and the company reached it’s peak production year in 1948. More than 3,000 workers were employed to produce over ten million dozen pieces of ware.

The 3rd Generation from 1950’s—1990’s

The 1950’s saw a large increase in imported dinnerware which was produced in countries with very low labor costs. This competition took it’s toll on the American industry and many potteries did not survive the decade. Homer Laughlin’s management decided to shift their emphasis from consumer dinnerware to commercial ware for the hotel and restaurant trade. 1959 saw the introduction of Homer Laughlin’s “Best China” brand vitrified hotel china.

J. M. Wells, Sr. retired at the end of that year, turning over the management of the company to the third generation of his family in the person of Joe Wells, Jr.

The sixties and seventies were difficult years for the American pottery industry, with low-cost imports carving out market share in the retail markets at the expense of domestic companies. Homer Laughlin’s hotel ware was gradually becoming a prominent player in the foodservice china industry, eventually overtaking retail dinnerware in sales volume.

In the early eighties, the company began to produce lead-free china, something that would become very important as the country became more environmentally conscious. Using lead-free glazes and a vitrified china body, Fiesta was reintroduced in new and updated colors. As this new version of their most famous product was being launched, Joe Wells, Jr. retired in 1986 and was replaced as executive vice president by his son, Joe Wells III. At the end of 1988, M. L. Aaron retired as company president and was succeeded by his son, Marcus (Pete) Aaron II. The company was now in the hands of the fourth generation of each family.

The New Century

As Fiesta began to flourish in the retail sector and Homer Laughlin was becoming a leading force in the foodservice china industry, the aging factories were undergoing many changes. State-of-the-art computerized kilns were installed throughout plants 6, 7 and 8. Much-needed new forming and glazing equipment was installed and a self-contained “plant within a plant” was built at Plant #8. Homer Laughlin was preparing to enter the new millennium as the industry leader in both the foodservice and retail businesses.

By 2002, ownership of the company was shared by third, fourth and fifth generation members of the Wells and Aaron families and others. Many of the shareholders were scattered throughout the country and had little involvement with the business. In an effort to consolidate resources and provide improved direction for the company, Joe Wells III, together with his sisters, Jean Wicks and Elizabeth McIlvain, purchased the interests of the other stockholders. In June, 2002, Joe Wells III was elected president and chief executive officer.

Since the re-organization, the company has experienced continued growth and is poised to move forward with the Wells Family’s pledge to continue producing quality, American-made china and provide jobs for potters of the Ohio Valley.

NOTE: Mug purchased on October 9, 2012

Image from page 157 of “Across the continent and around the world” (1872)
philadelphia travel company

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Identifier: acrosscontinenta00dist
Title: Across the continent and around the world
Year: 1872 (1870s)
Authors: [Disturnell, John] 1801-1877. [from old catalog]
Subjects: Railroads Steamboat lines. [from old catalog] Distances Travel
Publisher: Philadelphia, W. B. Zieber
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: The Library of Congress

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Register. CANADA 4500 GREECE 4500 THE QUEEN 4470 ENGLAND 4130 HELVETIA 4020 ERIN 4040 The Steamships of this Line are full powered, and the largest in the Atlantic serviceleaving the port of New York. They are built in water-tight compartments, and are spar-decked, thus affording every convenience for the comfort of Passengers, and securing speedand safety with economy. Cabin accommodations unsurpassed. One of the above Magnificent Iron Steamships will leave Piers 44 or 47 North River,EVERY SATURDAY FOR LIVERPOOL, calling at Quoenstown to land Passengers. FROM LIVERPOOL FOR NEW YORK, EVERY WEDNESDAY.FROM QUEENSTOWN, EVERY THURSDAY. FORTNIGHTLY to and from London direct. CABIN PASSAGE to Liverpool orQueenstown, and , payable in Currency. i^S^Persons intending to engage Passage are invited to inspect these Steamers beforebooking elsewhere. For Freight, Cabin or Steerage Passage, apply at the Companys Office, No. 69 Broadway, Iff. IT. F. W. J. HURST, Manager. NEW YORK TO CARDIFF.

Text Appearing After Image:
South Wales Atlantic Steamship Gos NEW, FIBST-CLASS, FULL-POWERED GLAMORGAN,PEMBROKE,CARMARTHEN, – 2,5002,SOO3,000 Tons. Will commence a regular service between the above ports, in May, 1872, carryingGoods and Passengers, at Through Rates, from all parts of the United States andCanada, to ports in the Bristol Channel, and all other points in England. These Steamships, built expressly for the trade, are provided with all the latestimprovements for the comfort and convenience of CABIN AND STEERAGE PASSENGERS. FAKES AS LOW AS BY ANT OTHER HRST-CLASS LINE. BRINGS THE TRAVELLER NEARER TO THAN THAT VIA LIVERPOOL. For further particulars, apply in CARDIFF, at the Companys Offices, 1 DockChambers; and, in NEW YORK, to ARCHIBALD BAXTER & 00., Agents, No. 17 Broadway. New York, April 24,1872. NEW YORK, GORK AND LIVERPOOL NEW AND FULL-POWERED STEAMSHIPS. THE SIX LARGEST IN THE WORLD. OCEANIC,ATLANTIC, BEPOBEIC,AGEIATIC, CELTIC,BALTIC, 6,000 TONS BURDEN—3,000 H. P. EACH. Sailing from New Yo

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Image from page 407 of “Book of the Royal blue” (1897)
philadelphia travel company

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Identifier: bookofroyalblue22balt
Title: Book of the Royal blue
Year: 1897 (1890s)
Authors: Baltimore and Ohio railroad company. [from old catalog]
Subjects: Middle Atlantic States — Description and travel
Publisher: Baltimore
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation

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Y. a new vocabulary. No straining or ex-pansion of a terminology derived fromthe upper world will enable it to describeadequately the wonderful phenomenapresented in this realm of stalacta. Thevisitor who attempts description mustbe content, therefore, with seeking toimpart enthusiasm without hoping totrace fully its causes. This only willremain clearly understood—the felicityof having experiencd a sensation alto-gether novel. The Persian monarchs desire — anew pleasure—is secured at length to the world in the Caverns of Luray.Luray Caverns are located on theline of the Norfolk & Western Railway,sixty-five miles from Shenandoah Junc-tion, on the line of the Baltimore & OhioRailroad. Excursions are run everysummer and fall from Philadelphia.Baltimore. Washington and intermediate points on the Baltimore & OhioRailroad, and special excursion ratesfor the summer touring season are tobe obtained from nearly every portionof the United States east of the Missis-sippi River.

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2751686986_38204a98b7

Bucolic Countryside, Ridge Road, Intercourse, Pennsylvania

Some cool philadelphia tourism images:

Bucolic Countryside, Ridge Road, Intercourse, Pennsylvania
philadelphia tourism

Image by Ken Lund
Pennsylvania Dutch Country, also called the Deitscherei in Deitsch, refers to an area of southeastern Pennsylvania, United States that by the American Revolution had a high percentage of Pennsylvania Dutch inhabitants. Religiously, there was a large portion of Lutherans. There were also German Reformed, Moravian, Amish, Mennonite, and other German Christian sects. The term was used in the middle of the 20th century as a description of a region with a distinctive Pennsylvania Dutch culture, but in recent decades the composition of the population is changing and the phrase is used more now in a tourism context than any other.

Geographically the area referred to as Amish/Dutch country centers around the cities of Allentown, Hershey, Lancaster, Reading, and York. Pennsylvania Dutch Country encompasses the counties of Chester, Lancaster, York, Adams, Franklin, Dauphin, Lebanon, Berks, Montgomery, Bucks, Northampton, Lehigh, Schuylkill, Snyder, Union, Juniata, Mifflin, Huntingdon, Northumberland, and Centre. Pennsylvania Dutch immigrants would spread from this area outwards outside the Pennsylvania borders between the mountains along river valleys into neighboring Maryland (Washington and Frederick counties), West Virginia, New Jersey (Warren and northern Hunterdon counties), Virginia (Shenandoah Valley), and North Carolina. The larger region has been historically referred to as Greater Pennsylvania. The historic Pennsylvania Dutch diaspora in Ontario, Canada has been referred to as Little Pennsylvania.

The western counties of the region experienced industrialization as well, with Hershey Foods being the most notable example, but it was less intensive, and agriculture retained a larger share of the economy. In the middle of the 20th century, both Amish and non-Amish entrepreneurs began to promote the area as a tourist destination. Though there are still plenty of Amish attempting to follow their traditional way of life, tourism and population growth have significantly changed the appearance and cultural flavor of the area. The region is within 50 miles of Philadelphia, Baltimore, Maryland, and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and has not escaped the effects of being located on the western edge of the East Coast conurbation which stretches from Washington, D.C. to New York City.

The Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonites, who have resisted these urbanization efforts most successfully, have retained aspects of their 18th century way of life, including the Deitsch dialect; however, these groups have changed significantly in the last two hundred years. Nevertheless, for the Old Order groups, change has come slower, and gradually they have become more and more distinctively different as the surrounding rural and urban population of Pennsylvania has changed.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pennsylvania_Dutch_Country

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_…

Rio
philadelphia tourism

Image by carlosoliveirareis
@ Philadelphia PA, EUA

IMG_0440

Citizens Bank Park
philadelphia tourism

Image by captaincmb

15224394854_296e8a2ea3

A sign of the times: nobody pays any attention to a beautiful laptop with a woman attached to it.

Check out these liberty bell images:

A sign of the times: nobody pays any attention to a beautiful laptop with a woman attached to it.
liberty bell

Image by Ed Yourdon
This was taken in Washington Square Park.

***************

This set of photos is based on a very simple concept: walk every block of Manhattan with a camera, and see what happens. To avoid missing anything, walk both sides of the street.

That’s all there is to it …

Of course, if you wanted to be more ambitious, you could also walk the streets of Brooklyn, Queens, Staten Island, and the Bronx. But that’s more than I’m willing to commit to at this point, and I’ll leave the remaining boroughs of New York City to other, more adventurous photographers.

Oh, actually, there’s one more small detail: leave the photos alone for a month — unedited, untouched, and unviewed. By the time I actually focus on the first of these "every-block" photos, I will have taken more than 8,000 images on the nearby streets of the Upper West Side — plus another several thousand in Rome, Coney Island, and the various spots in NYC where I traditionally take photos. So I don’t expect to be emotionally attached to any of the "every-block" photos, and hope that I’ll be able to make an objective selection of the ones worth looking at.

As for the criteria that I’ve used to select the small subset of every-block photos that get uploaded to Flickr: there are three. First, I’ll upload any photo that I think is "great," and where I hope the reaction of my Flickr-friends will be, "I have no idea when or where that photo was taken, but it’s really a terrific picture!"

A second criterion has to do with place, and the third involves time. I’m hoping that I’ll take some photos that clearly say, "This is New York!" to anyone who looks at it. Obviously, certain landscape icons like the Empire State Building or the Statue of Liberty would satisfy that criterion; but I’m hoping that I’ll find other, more unexpected examples. I hope that I’ll be able to take some shots that will make a "local" viewer say, "Well, even if that’s not recognizable to someone from another part of the country, or another part of the world, I know that that’s New York!" And there might be some photos where a "non-local" viewer might say, "I had no idea that there was anyplace in New York City that was so interesting/beautiful/ugly/spectacular."

As for the sense of time: I remember wandering around my neighborhood in 2005, photographing various shops, stores, restaurants, and business establishments — and then casually looking at the photos about five years later, and being stunned by how much had changed. Little by little, store by store, day by day, things change … and when you’ve been around as long as I have, it’s even more amazing to go back and look at the photos you took thirty or forty years ago, and ask yourself, "Was it really like that back then? Seriously, did people really wear bell-bottom jeans?"

So, with the expectation that I’ll be looking at these every-block photos five or ten years from now (and maybe you will be, too), I’m going to be doing my best to capture scenes that convey the sense that they were taken in the year 2013 … or at least sometime in the decade of the 2010’s (I have no idea what we’re calling this decade yet). Or maybe they’ll just say to us, "This is what it was like a dozen years after 9-11".

Movie posters are a trivial example of such a time-specific image; I’ve already taken a bunch, and I don’t know if I’ll ultimately decide that they’re worth uploading. Women’s fashion/styles are another obvious example of a time-specific phenomenon; and even though I’m definitely not a fashion expert, I suspected that I’ll be able to look at some images ten years from now and mutter to myself, "Did we really wear shirts like that? Did women really wear those weird skirts that are short in the front, and long in the back? Did everyone in New York have a tattoo?"

Another example: I’m fascinated by the interactions that people have with their cellphones out on the street. It seems that everyone has one, which certainly wasn’t true a decade ago; and it seems that everyone walks down the street with their eyes and their entire conscious attention riveted on this little box-like gadget, utterly oblivious about anything else that might be going on (among other things, that makes it very easy for me to photograph them without their even noticing, particularly if they’ve also got earphones so they can listen to music or carry on a phone conversation). But I can’t help wondering whether this kind of social behavior will seem bizarre a decade from now … especially if our cellphones have become so miniaturized that they’re incorporated into the glasses we wear, or implanted directly into our eyeballs.

If you have any suggestions about places that I should definitely visit to get some good photos, or if you’d like me to photograph you in your little corner of New York City, please let me know. You can send me a Flickr-mail message, or you can email me directly at ed-at-yourdon-dot-com

Stay tuned as the photo-walk continues, block by block …

Liberty Bell avalanche chutes
liberty bell

Image by WSDOT
Looking back towards Liberty Bell 1 from the top of Liberty Bell 2. Note the sign. Liberty Bell 1 is about half the width as last year, with not a lot of visible snow available to come down.