Tag Archives: 1853

Image from page 245 of “Arctic explorations: the second Grinnell expedition in search of Sir John Franklin, 1853, ’54, ’55” (1856)

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Image from page 245 of “Arctic explorations: the second Grinnell expedition in search of Sir John Franklin, 1853, ’54, ’55” (1856)
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Identifier: arcticexploratio01kane
Title: Arctic explorations: the second Grinnell expedition in search of Sir John Franklin, 1853, ’54, ’55
Year: 1856 (1850s)
Authors: Kane, Elisha Kent, 1820-1857
Subjects: Grinnell Expedition 1853-1855)
Publisher: Philadelphia, Childs & Peterson [etc., etc.]
Contributing Library: University Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Digitizing Sponsor: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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hATlVE SLEDGE, (KOOMETIK,>—CELLULAR BONE OF WHALE. ments of porous bone, admirably knit together bythongs of hide; the runners, which glistened like bur-nished steel, were of highly-polished ivory, obtainedfrom the tusks of the walrus. The only arms they carried were knives, concealedin their boots; but their lances, which were lashed tothe sledges, were quite a formidable weapon. Thestaff was of the horn of the narwhal, or else of thethigh-bones of the bear, two lashed together, or some-times the mirabilis of the walrus, three or four of them 20G THEIR EQUIPMENT. united. This last was a favorite material also for thecross-bars of their sledges. They had no wood. Asingle rusty hoop from a current-drifted cask mighthave furnished all the knives of the party; but the

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HOOP-IRON KNIFE, (S E V 1 K ) fleam-shaped tips of their lances were of unmistakablesteel, and were riveted to the tapering bony pointwith no mean skill. I learned afterward that themetal was obtained in traffic from the more southerntribes.

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Image from page 326 of “History of the Corn Exchange Regiment, 118th Pennsylvania Volunteers, from their first engagement at Antietam to Appomattox. To which is added a record of its organization and a complete roster. Fully illustrated with maps, portrai
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Identifier: historyofcornexc00unit
Title: History of the Corn Exchange Regiment, 118th Pennsylvania Volunteers, from their first engagement at Antietam to Appomattox. To which is added a record of its organization and a complete roster. Fully illustrated with maps, portraits, and over one hundred illustrations
Year: 1888 (1880s)
Authors: United States. Army. Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment, 118th (1862-1865) Smith, John L., b. 1846
Subjects: United States. Army. Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment, 118th (1862-1865) United States — History Civil War, 1861-1865 Regimental histories
Publisher: Philadelphia, Pa., J. L. Smith
Contributing Library: New York Public Library
Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

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ject of the war. Though trulyloyal Adams county Pennsylvanians, they had heard but little,and knew nothing except as the attendant scenes of the latebattle brought them to a realizing sense of its terrors. Smith,in the course of the conversation, pushing and inquisitive, andhaving noticed how the male sex was conspicuously absent,graciously turned to the elderly one of the four and, assumingthat she was the mother of the other three, in a tone of condo-lence remarked, By the way, madam, I assume you are awidow, and with all these cares upon you in these troubloustimes your task is by no means a light one. It was too muchfor them. Hitherto controlled solely by mercenary motives,and forgetful of their loss, in a traffic which yielded such tre-mendous profits, the interrogation revived the remembrance ofa dear and absent father, and, all bursting into tears, they man-aged to stammer out an explanation. When the head of the.•enemys column had appeared in that vicinity a few days before,

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CoKP. John L. Smith, NEW YORK C LIBRARY, ASTOR, LENOX ANDTILDEN FOUNDATIONS. — 277 — the good man, husband .uid father tliat he was, prompted whollyby a motive to save his goods and chattels from destruction,spoliation and seizure, announced himself as heartily in sym-pathy with the Confederate cause, and ready to serve it in anycapacity for which he might be fitted. Good for you, myman, said the general officer whom he made his confidant,and promptly equipping him with cartridge-box and rifle, heforced him into the ranks, and that was the last the)- had seenor heard of him. They would not be comforted nor cease theirweeping until the appearance of the shekels again consoled theirmisfortune, and the bargain and the interview closed cheerfullywhen the goose was boiled, the bread done, and all the articlespaid for. Whether the old man ever returned, and if so, in whatcondition, was never subsequently ascertained. Smith returned to the camp in the waning of the afternoonand, proud as

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Image from page 20 of “Elements of chemistry : including the applications of the science in the arts” (1853)

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Image from page 20 of “Elements of chemistry : including the applications of the science in the arts” (1853)
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Identifier: 60730410R.nlm.nih.gov
Title: Elements of chemistry : including the applications of the science in the arts
Year: 1853 (1850s)
Authors: Graham, Thomas, 1805-1869 Bridges, Robert, 1806-1882
Subjects: Chemical Phenomena
Publisher: Philadelphia : Blanchard and Lea
Contributing Library: U.S. National Library of Medicine
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons, U.S. National Library of Medicine

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s — that of Breguet. When hot water is suddenly poured upon a thick plate of glass, the upper surfaceis heated and expanded before the heat penetrates to the lower surface of the plate.There is here unequal expansion, as in the slip of copper and platinum. The glasstends to bend, with the hot and expanded surface on the outside of the curve, butis broken from its want of flexibility. The occurrence of such fractures is bestavoided by applying heat to glass vessels in a gradual manner, so as to occasion nogreat inequality of expansion; or by using very thin vessels, through the substanceof which heat is rapidly transmitted. This effect of heat on glass may by a little address be turned to advantage.Watch-glasses are cut out of a thin globe of glass, by conducting a crack in a properdirection, by means of an iron rod, or piece of tobacco pipe, heated to redness.Glass vessels damaged in the laboratory may often be divided in the same manner,and still made available for useful purposes.

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36 EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS. Both cast iron and glass are peculiarly liable to accidents from unequal expansion,when in the state of flat plates. Plate glass, indeed, can never be heated withoutrisk of its breaking. The flat iron plates placed across chimneys as dampers, arealso very apt to split when they become hot, and much inconvenience has oftenbeen experienced in manufactories from this cause. A slight curvature in their formhas been found to protect them most effectually. Expansion of liquids. — In liquids the expansive force of heat is little resistedby cohesive attraction, and is much more considerable than in solids. This fact isstrikingly exhibited by filling the bulb and part of the stem of a common thermo-meter tube with a liquid, and applying heat to it. The liquid is seen immediatelyto mount in the tube. The first law, in the case of liquids, is that some expand much more considerablyby heat than others. Thus, on being heated to the same extent, namely, from thefreezing t

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Image from page 110 of “A practical treatise on the manufacture of colors for painting : comprising the origin, definition, and classification of colors; the treatment of the raw materials … etc.” (1874)
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Identifier: practicaltreatis00riff
Title: A practical treatise on the manufacture of colors for painting : comprising the origin, definition, and classification of colors; the treatment of the raw materials … etc.
Year: 1874 (1870s)
Authors: Riffault des Hêtres, Jean René Denis, 1754?-1826 Vergnaud, A. D. (Armand Denis), 1791-1885 Toussaint, G. Alvar Malepeyre, F. (François), 1794-1877
Subjects: Paint
Publisher: Philadelphia : H. C. Baird
Contributing Library: Getty Research Institute
Digitizing Sponsor: Getty Research Institute

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filled with the litharge, then beginsthe introduction of the fumes of vinegar distilled inan ordinary still, and of carbonic acid kept in a gasholder in an adjoining room. Before removing thecovers of the trays, the stopcocks in the pipes throughwhich the vinegar vapors and the carbonic acid j^assare turned oflP. By these means, when the propertemperature has been maintained, the oxid^ of lead istransformed into carbonate. Another method of manufacturing white lead,proposed by the same inventor, consists of a series oflarge stoneware jars a (Fig. 9), in which are suspended,by woollen or cotton cords, several sponges whichdo not touch the sides of the jars.By capillary attraction, a solution Fig. 9. of neutral acetate of lead held inX keeps the sponges wet. Thesalts of lead are transformed intocarbonates by a current of carbonicacid which passes through the jars.The sponges are then removed,and washed in pure water. Aftersettling, the clear liquors are de-canted for a future operation.

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