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Protesters march through Center City streets, stores, restaurants

Protesters march through Center City streets, stores, restaurants
A group of demonstrators marched their way through Center City, entering stores and restaurants, to protest police brutality. The marchers assembled around 5:00 p.m. Tuesday at Dilworth Park then began walking along Walnut Street toward Rittenhouse …
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Image from page 409 of “Roosevelt’s African trip; the story of his life, the voyage from New York to Mombasa, and the route through the heart of Africa, including the big game and other ferocious animals, strange peoples and countries found in the course

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Image from page 409 of “Roosevelt’s African trip; the story of his life, the voyage from New York to Mombasa, and the route through the heart of Africa, including the big game and other ferocious animals, strange peoples and countries found in the course
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Identifier: rooseveltsafrica00ungerfr
Title: Roosevelt’s African trip; the story of his life, the voyage from New York to Mombasa, and the route through the heart of Africa, including the big game and other ferocious animals, strange peoples and countries found in the course of his travels
Year: 1909 (1900s)
Authors: Unger, Frederic William, b. 1875
Subjects: Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919 Game and game-birds
Publisher: [Philadelphia?, PA.]
Contributing Library: Smithsonian Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Smithsonian Libraries

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ued by both, but that of the former will be evident from thedescription of the latter. A man without means forms an expedition, and borrows moneyfor this purpose at one hundred per cent, after this fashion. He agreesto repay the lender in ivory at one-half its market value. Having ob-tained the required sum, he hires several vessels and engages from onehundred to three hundred men, composed of Arabs and runaway vil-lains from distant countries, who have found an asylum from justicein the obscurity of Khartoum. He purchases guns and large quantitiesof ammunition for his men, together with a few hundred pounds of 373 374 SAMUEL BAKER AND THE SLAVE TRADE glass beads. The piratical expedition being complete, he pays his menfive months wages in advance, at the rate of forty-five piastres (nineshillings) per month, and he agrees to give them eighty piastres permonth for any period exceeding the five months advanced. His menreceive their advance partly in cash and partly in cotton stuffs for

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BAKERS ARRIVAL AT RIONGAS ISLAND clothes at an exorbitant price. Every man has a strip of paper, uponwhich is written, by the clerk of the expedition, the amount he ha§received both in goods and money, and this paper he must produce atthe final settlement. The vessels sail about December, and on arrival at the desiredlocality, the party disembark and proceed into the interior, until theyarrive at the village of some negro chief, with whom they establish an SIR SAMUEL BASER AND THE SLAVE TRADE 375 intimacy. Charmed with his new friends, the power of whose weap-ons he acknowledges, the negro chief does not neglect the opportunityof seeking their alliance to attack a hostile neighbor. Marchingthroughout the night, guided by their negro hosts, they bivouac withinan hours march of the unsuspecting village doomed to an attack abouthalf an hour before break of day. The time arrives, and, quietly sur-rounding the village while its occupants are still sleeping, they firethe grass huts in all

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Image from page 116 of “A trip to the Orient; the story of a Mediterranean cruise” (1907)
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Identifier: triptoorientstor00jacorich
Title: A trip to the Orient; the story of a Mediterranean cruise
Year: 1907 (1900s)
Authors: Jacob, Robert Urie
Subjects: Middle East — Description and travel
Publisher: Philadelphia, The J. C. Winston co
Contributing Library: University of California Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

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iffs on three sides. Theonly approach to its summit, which is about two hundredfeet above the level of the modern city, is on the south-west side, being reached by the avenues we had followedup the gradual slope past Mars Hill. On this height, said the guide, the Athenians,during the reign of Pericles in the golden age of Greece,erected a temple to their patron deity, Minerva, thegoddess of wisdom. And to this goddess, named alsoAthena, who, as they asserted, sprang from the brainof Jupiter a mature woman in complete armor, theylooked for protection. For her they offered theirchoicest gifts, yet they did not neglect the multitude ofother gods whom they feared to offend. The old guide was well informed, but his Englishwas rather difficult to understand. He was inter-rupted a number of times until one of the tourists, acollege professor, undertook the task of assisting himin the story. ■These dilapidated stone steps, said the professor,formed once the magnificent marble staircase that

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GIGANTIC STATUES OF WOMEN UPHOLD THE CORNICE. (105) io6 A TRIP TO THE ORIENT. led to the gateway of the Acropolis. The staircase wasseventy feet in width; in the centre was a slopingcarriageway up which chariots could be driven. It wasbuilt by Pericles four hundred years before the Christianera. Statues of wonderful beauty, by famous sculp-tors, were arranged along the steps. At times of greatrejoicing, as after a victory, triumphal processionsascended these flights to present offerings to the gods,or to deposit in the treasury of the temple the spoilstaken from their enemies and to offer sacrifices andworship to their protecting goddess. The Propylaea,or grand entrance hall and gateway to the Acropolis,stood at the head of the stairway; these broken columnsare all that remain of one of the most imposing structuresof that golden age. Keep close to the professor and never mind theguide, urged one of our companions. We followedher suggestion. This small building on our right with four g

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Image from page 4 of “Travels in Turkey, Asia-Minor, Syria, and across the desert into Egypt : during the years 1799, 1800, and 1801, in company with the Turkish Army, and the British Military Mission : also through Germany, Holland, &c. on the return to

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Image from page 4 of “Travels in Turkey, Asia-Minor, Syria, and across the desert into Egypt : during the years 1799, 1800, and 1801, in company with the Turkish Army, and the British Military Mission : also through Germany, Holland, &c. on the return to
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Identifier: 2578008R.nlm.nih.gov
Title: Travels in Turkey, Asia-Minor, Syria, and across the desert into Egypt : during the years 1799, 1800, and 1801, in company with the Turkish Army, and the British Military Mission : also through Germany, Holland, &c. on the return to England : to which are annexed, observations on the plague, and on the diseases prevalent in Turkey, and a meteorological journal
Year: 1804 (1800s)
Authors: Wittman, William, fl. 1799-1804 Humphreys, James, 1748-1810, printer
Subjects: Travel
Publisher: Philadelphia : Printed and sold by James Humphreys
Contributing Library: U.S. National Library of Medicine
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rn fyftem of Female Education ; with a view of theprinciples and conduct prevalent among women of rank and fortune: by Hannah More. Voyage Round the World. By M. de la PEYROUSE. The mod remarkable Year in the Life of A. V. KOTZEBUE; containingan account of his exile into Siberia, and of the other extraordinary eventswhich happened to him in Ruffia. DISCOURSES to the AGED: by Job Orton. FAMILY BOOK; containing difcourfes doctrinal, evangelical, practical,and hiftorical; by Eli Forbes, of MafTachufetts. Blunts and Bowditchs PRACTICAL NAVIGATOR. The American Coast Pilot. WALSHs MERCANTILE ARITHMETIC; adapted to the Commerceof the United States in its Domeftic and Foreign Relations, &c. Sec ; I ■ I i I :H H * I 14

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DR. WITTMANS TRAVELS TTTTltrtTl TRAVE

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Manhattan Bridge
philadelphia travel company
Image by Ed Yourdon
The expanse of the Manhattan Bridge was too large for me to capture with a simple wide-angle lens … so I took a panorama shot and let the camera stitch all the details together.

The view here is looking to the north, with the Williamsburg Bridge visible in the background.

Note: I chose this as my "photo of the day" for Oct 26, 2014.

*******************************

Because I work and live in Manhattan, I don’t often visit the four other boroughs of New York City … but there’s a magical place in Brooklyn that I want to tell you about, located in Brooklyn Bridge Park at the edge of the East River. It’s right on the water, framed by the Manhattan Bridge on the north and the Brooklyn Bridge on the south. A few NYC residents and perhaps even a few visitors are already nodding their heads as they read this, but I suspect that most readers of these Flickr notes are as oblivious as I was, and have never heard of Jane’s Carousel.

“Jane” is, as I’ve now learned, Jane Walentas, an artist who spent 20 years overseeing the restoration of a magnificent 48-horse carousel, created by the Philadelphia Toboggan Company, and first installed in a park in Youngstown, Ohio in 1922. Ms. Walentas and her husband, David, bought the carousel and the wooden horses at an auction in 1984 for 5,000; I have no idea what inspired them to do so, or what could possibly have inspired Jane to spend the next 20 years scraping off layers of paint and restoring the original design and colors, the pin-striping and the gold leaf as the carousel sat in a studio in Dumbo (for the non-New Yorkers who might have stumbled onto this page of notes, “DUMBO” is an acronym that means “Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass).

Anyway, the carousel was opened in mid-September 2011, and for reasons unknown, I was completely oblivious as to its existence for the next three years. It’s located in a million transparent acrylic “jewel box” that was designed by the French architect Jean Novel, and it’s absolutely stunning to see. My wife coaxed me into taking the somewhat laborious subway ride from the Upper West Side (via the “C” and the “F” trains) over to Brooklyn a couple days ago, and we were lucky to have chosen a brilliantly sunny Saturday afternoon, arriving just at the beginning of the “golden hour” when the light was perfect for photography.

In the three years since it opened, Jane’s Carousel has apparently attracted a lot of attention: there were some New Yorkers like me wandering around, and some visitors from nearby New Jersey and Long Island … but I also heard and saw evidence of visitors from France, Germany, Russia, Japan, Korea, and a lot of other places which would normally have great difficulty distinguishing Brooklyn from the Bronx or Staten Island. You can arrange birthday parties at the carousel; and there were heavily-costumed bridal parties along with the dog-walkers, the photographers, and the tour boats (including the venerable Circle Line) cruising up and down the East River.

And speaking of the East River, one of the most dazzling aspects of this place is the view that you get, with the two mammoth bridges spanning the river, along with the Wall Street skyline, the South Street Seaport, and the massive Freedom Tower in the background. Even if you didn’t spend a minute looking at the brightly painted carousel horses, and listening to the hypnotic music of the carousel, you could easily spend the afternoon watching the tugboats and sailboats and barges and ferries, the cruise boats and the motorboats chugging up and down the river. One can only imagine what it must have been like a century ago, before the railroads and jet planes had eliminated the bulk of water travel.

I’m embarrassed that it took me so long to visit this place, and I hope that you’ll take the hint and go see it yourself, at your first opportunity. If you would like to see some more details about the place, you might want to start with the official website for Jane’s Carousel, located here:

janescarousel.com

A New York Times article, written shortly before the official opening of the carousel in mid-September 2011, can be found here

www.nytimes.com/2011/09/02/arts/design/janes-carousel-at-…

and an October 2012 New Yorker article about the impact of Hurricane Sandy on the carousel can be found here:

www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/the-carousel-survives

Retaining Independence Through Home Care

With the many advances constantly taking place in the field of health and medicine, Americans are living longer than ever before. The life expectancy rate for males and females in the United States is between 75 and 80 years. A simple but unfortunate fact of life that everyone must face, is that upon growing older, it becomes difficult to keep up with all of the everyday activities that are natural parts of living-cooking, cleaning, running errands, etc. For many seniors, the thought of relinquishing these simple but meaningful parts of life for the confinement of a nursing home is devastating. Receiving home care services, however, can significantly reduce the loss of personal freedom, and help seniors retain a sense of independence.

Practicing good nutrition is always an important part of life. Having a healthy and well balanced diet becomes even more crucial upon aging. One of the main benefits of home care, is the help that seniors receive in the kitchen. Whether one prefers to avoid the kitchen all together, or just needs a little bit of help, home care professionals can make sure that seniors are receiving the necessary nutrients to continue to remain as healthy as possible. As cooking becomes more difficult, many people fall into the habit of eating too many processed foods and empty calories. Eating well is crucial to well-being, and proper care at home makes that possible.

Living in a clean home is a vital part of remaining healthy, especially as one’s immune system is weakened by age. Some chores simply become too onerous for many seniors to be able to complete. Housekeeping services are an integral part of proper home care. By helping seniors have clean bathrooms, kitchens, and general living areas, care aides at home make sure that seniors can feel comfortable and stay healthy in a clean home.

There are many different options for seniors to consider, when it comes to choosing the best home care program. A great deal of research should be done, in order to find the best program for you or your loved one. Look at testimonials to see what patients have said about different programs. Networking and talking to people you know who are already receiving this service can be the best way to find the right company. Compare the cost of different services. For those who worry about the financial aspects of home care, government aide and non-profit options are available.

The important thing is staying happy, healthy, and independent. Home care is a great way to make the later years of life as joyful and productive as the years that brought you there.

The Foundation for Senior Living one of the most personalized and caring services for home health care Phoenix has to offer. (http://www.fsl.org)

Related Independence Hall Articles

Tracing Generations Family Tree Through the Culture Genealogy Society

Who is who way back in the family tree. Look at the different generations

When you start to look back down the family tree you can find many surprises waiting for you. Some families have discovered that they have American Indian ancestry many hundreds of years ago and had no idea about it until someone began to search back. Although genealogy can be a frustrating task at times when you hit a brick wall and cannot find a little thread to carry you onto the next person it is so worth persevering as such interesting facts can emerge.

A good site for helping you in your research is the Culture Genealogy Society website which includes many links with other reputable sites all over the world which specialize in the genealogy of different cultures. For example there are sites on American Indian DNA genealogy, and even European genealogy websites where you can retrace who your ancestors.

Many of these websites will give you copies of original documents and also a virtual family tree where you can trace your origins relatively easily through a combination of DNA information and surname/dates/occupation research.

It is a painstaking task to reconstruct a family tree but one where you will have quite an adventure as you find out the trials and tribulations of the family members you find. Did they rise to the occasion when times were tough or did they sink? Did they do acts of heroism or did they tend to keep their heads down and survive? Just for a laugh and to give an example of how interlinked families can be ex-president Bush is a very distant cousin to his political rival John Kerry and he is also a distant cousin of Hugh Hefner who founded the Playboy Empire.

So tracking back through the generations is a fun and fascinating activity and you may well find that you are related to someone famous or that you have relatives from some very different culture that you had no idea about.

The Culture Genealogy Society website will provide you with many different kinds of information from which you can pick up clues about the generations before you in your family and is well worth a visit.

Edward J James is a true genealogy enthusiast and expert. He lives in London and spends his time teaching others how to build their family tree. For more great information on generations family tree, visit http://www.buildfamilytreesecrets.com

World?s History Through Pictures

World’s history encompasses the entire history of human race from early prehistory to present. Through the long history, there are so many timelines in all places on earth. Let’s take a glimpse through the following pictures which describe the remarkable timelines of world’s history.

 

Cave of Lascaux

The Cave of Lascaux is well-known for its prehistoric paintings. The images show animals, hunts, and wars. The interesting fact of the picture can be described as: the hunts were drawn on the wall like a comic strip.

 

The stories are told from the left to the right, until the prey is captured.

 

Renaissance paintings

Renaissance is said to have started in the European civilization which marks the medieval period. In traditional sense, Renaissance is understood to be a zoom in the interest of classical learning and its values.

 

Sixteenth century witnessed the importance of artists and popular demand of movable pictures.

 

Photography

Louis Daguerre was a professional scene painter for the opera who had the leading intention about ways to keep the image still. Louis Daguerre formed partnership with Joseph Niepce to produce the first photographic image but the photographs quickly faded.

 

A few years later, Louis Daguerre himself developed “the daguerreotype” – a more convenient and effective method of photography.

 

Cinema

The first 49-second short “Danse Serpentine” captured a woman in very wide dress dancing on a wooden stage. Louis and Auguste Lumière successfully made flowing movements with ever changing, fascinating shapes.

 

The first 49-second short “Danse Serpentine” captured a woman in very wide dress dancing on a wooden stage.

 

The famous photo captured Lenin addressing his Red Army when they were about to go to the Polish front during the Russian Revolution.

 

During the summer of 1934, Philo Taylor Farnsworth (American inventor and television pioneer) together with Franklin Institute of Philadelphia conducted the first full scale demonstration of electronic television.

 

Charles Moore’s famous picture has strong impact on society. Captured during Birmingham Protests (1963), the sensible photo attributed significant influence to the Civil Rights movement.

 

Thanks to the development of photography, the whole world could graspe the ravages of Vietnam war.

 

The Hubble Space Telescope was sent to space in 2004 to site outside the filter of the Earth’s atmosphere. Along with cosmological discoveries, Hubble  captured visual revelations of the solar system with pinpoint clarity.

 

 

Related links:

Impressive and Outstanding Images (1 – 6 November)

News in Brief through Photos: November 8

Cheetahs: Best Friends of San Tribe

I am the fan of news on society and culture. I am currently the lecturer in social major. In free time, I am fond of reading articles and joining social activities.

More History Of Philadelphia Pictures Articles

Assaulting Liberty Through Regulation

In the early 20th Century the temperance movement was in high gear. Slowly, county after county then state after state passed laws prohibiting the manufacture, distribution and consumption of alcohol within their borders. The excuse of the temperance movement was that alcohol was evil and a threat to the public health and those claims were eventually ramrodded down the throats of the whole of the American people in the form of the 18th Amendment. Even in those days, those that would become the modern liberals of today were trying to mold society to their whims.

What they did was take something that most people enjoyed and consumed responsibly and focused on the deadbeats who would also get drunk, urinate in public, beat their wives, vandalize property and paint with a broad brush everyone that consumed alcohol. They then branded alcohol as “evil” and “wicked” and eventually won enough support for their own little crusade against liberty. Instead of punishing those that were committing crimes, which is what limited and just government is supposed to do, they punished everyone and shackled Lady Liberty.

We also know how well that worked out in the end don’t we?

Sure we do. Thousands of people were out of work as breweries were shut down and the industries that supplied those breweries lost demand for their products. Backwoods distilleries popped up. Some of these illegal stills cut their alcohol with substances not fit for human consumption. Moonshine was being run by bootleggers all over the country. And even many of federal agents charged with breaking up the now illegal distilleries were involved in making illegal liquor because they could make more calling off sick for a couple days and concocting illegal brew than they could working for the government in a month.

Yeah, prohibition worked great didn’t it? Ah yes the great and powerful government sure saved us from our liberties didn’t they? Can you just hear the sarcasm oozing from my voice?

So what did we get for all this trouble? Not much except the eventual repeal of this absolutely silly attempt at controlling human behavior and liberty with yet another amendment. We again returned to a state where liberty, on this issue, reigned and we focused again on people that abused the liberty of others.

So you would think that we wouldn’t try it again. You would think that we would have learned our lesson. But liberals don’t think. That’s the problem. Their rearview mirror is broken and they can’t see history to learn from it.

Today there is a new bogeyman; a new “temperance movement”. The latest cause celeb of the left in their pursuit of infringing liberty is of course none other than smoking. And make no mistake those that are driving us down this latest road to ruin are no friends to liberty.

Recently, for example, the county of Allegheny where my home city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania is located, tried to join the growing list of places around the country that have banned smoking everywhere they could get away with it. Note that I didn’t say they tried to ban tobacco or cigarettes. They wouldn’t do that. Oh no, they just wanted to ban smoking such products in restaurants and bars, which they refer to as places of “public accommodation”. Places of “public accommodation”, just so you know, is code for private property government and nebby do-gooders want to regulate and need some auspices to do so.

What they really tried to do was tell private citizens who own private businesses that they could not allow their employees or their patrons to smoke in their establishments. Mind you this was after many of them had invested thousands, if not tens of thousands, of their own dollars in special ventilation and air conditioning systems to keep smokers and non-smokers separate from each other.

Now, maybe you are a liberal. And maybe you feel that is a good idea and that government should do this. If that is the case, I weep for you.

The smoking ban and the assault on private property was touted by those that promoted it much in the same way the prohibition movement was way back when alcohol was the boogeyman. It was deemed as necessary because smoking is dangerous and harmful to one’s health and as a result also to society. You know, since we now have a largely public healthcare system funded by tax payer dollars which in and of itself is unkind to personal liberty. Some of them even trotted out the old canard that smoking “causes” cancer despite the truth that it only increases the risk of getting cancer.

This is much like saying that depressing the gas pedal of a car makes it go forward. No, it doesn’t. It only increases the chance of that happening. There are many other things that also have to be true in order for the car to go forward such as there being gas in the tank, the ignition being turned on, the car in the proper forward gear, and many, many other things.

Like the gas pedal of a car, if smoking, or even second hand smoke for that matter, “caused” cancer or any other disease then everyone that smoked or was exposed to smoke would have that disease. But we know that is not true. So we are back to the fact that smoking simply “increases” the risk of getting cancer.

Well la dee freaking dah! If that’s all it takes to ban something I’ve got a whole list of such things that need to be banned based on the fact that they “increase” the risks of people being harmed. These things range from driving which increases people’s risk of being in a fatal car accident, to swimming which dramatically increases the chance of one drowning, to sky diving which greatly increases the risk of people getting messily splattered all over the concrete. Should we ban these activities in public as well?

Then there are others who said that the ban would be a good thing because they did not like going to their favorite restaurant or bar and having to put up with smokers, which they claimed, put them at risk. To which I asked the question, “Why just simply not go there?” Then I asked what gave them the right to tell Joe’s Bar on the corner that he could not let his patrons have a cigarette on property he bought and paid for. I still, to this day, have not received a reasoned answer that did not involve someone believing that they have the right to pursue their happiness (i.e. eating at a particular restaurant) at the expense of someone else’s liberty (i.e. their private property rights).

Then of course there were the cries about “the children”. Aw. We all got teary eyed at that one. Even me as I opened up my humidor, picked out a nice cigar and lit up. Taking a long puff, allowing the fine smoke to tickle my pallet I recalled far more hazardous things that happen to children.

Just last week for example we had an example where two women here in Pittsburgh left their young children locked in a bed room while they went out to the local bar. Five of these children are now dead because they decided to play with matches and were not being supervised when they burned down the house.

Yes, I’d say there are certainly more harmful things to children than my occasional cigar. Neglectful parents more worried about their own pleasure than their children’s welfare comes to mind. And of course the excuses for these women have already started as to why they should not be at the very least partially accountable.

I think that is where the whole desire to regulate the behavior of others comes from; people not wanting to be held accountable for their own actions. Or maybe it isn’t not wanting to be held accountable but simply being unable to control themselves. Either way there are many people that are eager to seize upon these types of attitudes and enslave those that cannot or will not be accountable for their own choices while punishing the rest of us as well.

The good news is the county smoking ban here went down in flames. This of course lead to lots of hand wringing and whining by those that really wanted it. I am certain that these are the same people that need government to tell them how many gallons of water are in their toilet and also, most likely, how to properly wipe their posteriors after using it.

Those that seek to control others really wanted the ban because the second they would have been able to ban smoking, again but not ban tobacco, cigarettes, etc., in restaurants and bars it would have been a stepping stone to banning smoking everywhere including in private residences “for the common good”. If you think otherwise you haven’t been paying attention.

But despite the crash and burn of the Allegheny County smoking ban the Commonwealth is pondering a state wide smoking ban for much the same reasons as the county ban was proposed. Again, they are not going to ban cigarettes and other tobacco products which they decry as bad, evil and a pox on our society mind you. They just want to tell us how to use our private property and that we cannot use it to partake of perfectly legal indulgences such as smoking.

And maybe when all is said and done we here in Pennsylvania will give up our liberties just as the people in New Hampshire did when they recently passed a similar statewide ban. Apparently that State’s motto has now been changed from “Live Free Or Die” to “Freedom? We Don’t Need No Stinkin’ Freedom!”

J.J. Jackson is a libertarian conservative and the owner and Lead Editor of American Conservative Politics – The Land of the Free and American Infidel T-shirts. His weekly articles can be read at Liberty Reborn.

Related Liberty Bell Articles

Image from page 88 of “Two thousand miles on an automobile; being a desultory narrative of a trip through New England, New York, Canada, and the West” (1902)

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Image from page 88 of “Two thousand miles on an automobile; being a desultory narrative of a trip through New England, New York, Canada, and the West” (1902)
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Identifier: twothousandmiles00edd
Title: Two thousand miles on an automobile; being a desultory narrative of a trip through New England, New York, Canada, and the West
Year: 1902 (1900s)
Authors: Eddy, Arthur Jerome, 1859-1920
Subjects: Eddy, Arthur Jerome, 1859-1920 Automobile travel
Publisher: Philadelphia, London, J.B. Lippincott company

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s; it is as if apprentice blacksmiths hadspent their idle moments in constructing a machine. The carriage work is hopelessly bad. The build-ing of carriages is a long-established industry, em- 6 82 On an Automobile ploying hundreds of thousands of hands and millionsof capital, and yet in the entire United States thereare scarcely a dozen builders of really fine, substantial,and durable vehicles. Yet every cross-road maker ofautomobiles thinks that if he can only get his motorto go, the carpenter next door can do his woodwork.The result is cheap stock springs, clips, irons, bodies,cushions, tops, etc., are bought and put over themotor. The use of aluminum bodies and more metalwork generally is helping things somewhat; not thataluminum and metal work are necessarily better thanwood, but it prevents the unnatural union of the lightwood bodies, designed for cheap horse-vehicles, witha motor. The best French makers do not build theirbodies, but leave that part to skilled carriage builders.

Text Appearing After Image:
r-y CHAPTER SEVEN BUFFALO TO CANANDAIGUA The five hundred and sixtv-odd miles to Buffalo had Troubles bcgtn been covered Avith no trouble that delayed us for morethan an hour, but our troubles were about to begin. The Professor had still a few days to waste frivo-lously, so he said he would ride a little farther,possibly as far as Albany. However, it was notour intention to hurry, but rather take it easily,stopping by the way, as the mood—or our friends—seized us. It rained all the afternoon of Tuesday, about allnight, and was raining steadilv when we turned off 83 give out 84 On an Automobile Main Street into Genesee with Batavia thirty-eightmiles straight away. We fuh}- expected to reach therein time for kmcheon; in fact, word had been sentahead that we would come in, like a circus, abouttwelve, and friends were on the lookout,—it was fouroclock when we reached town. The road is good, gravel nearly every rod, but the (steady rain had softened the surface to the depth of about

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Image from page 297 of “Two thousand miles on an automobile; being a desultory narrative of a trip through New England, New York, Canada, and the West” (1902)
philadelphia travel company
Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: twothousandmiles00edd
Title: Two thousand miles on an automobile; being a desultory narrative of a trip through New England, New York, Canada, and the West
Year: 1902 (1900s)
Authors: Eddy, Arthur Jerome, 1859-1920
Subjects: Eddy, Arthur Jerome, 1859-1920 Automobile travel
Publisher: Philadelphia, London, J.B. Lippincott company

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conspiracy to effect suchrevolution, also conspired to excite classes of workingmen inChicago into sedition, tumult, and riot, and to the use ofdeadly weapons and the taking of human life, and for thepurpose of producing such tumult, riot, use of weapons andtaking of life, advised and encouraged such classes by news-paper articles and speeches to murder the authorities of thecity, and a murder of a policeman resulted from such adviceand encouragement, then defendants are responsible there-for. It is the logical application of this proposition thatwill defeat the propaganda of action. If it beenacted that any man who advocates the commissionof any criminal act, or who afterwards condones thecrime, shall be deemed guilty of an offence equal tothat advocated or condoned and punished accordingly,the propaganda of action in all branches of criminalendeavor will be effectually stifled without the doubt-ful expedient of directing legislation against any par-ticular social or economic theory.

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UP THE HLL. CHAPTER SEVENTEEN NEW YORK TO BUFFALO It was Saturday, the 14th, at nine oclock, when weleft New York for Albany, followmg the route ofthe Endurance Contest. The morning was bright and warm. The roadswere perfect for miles. We passed Kings Bridge,Yonkers, Hastings, and Dobbs Ferry flying. At Tar-rytown we dropped the chain. A link had parted.Pushing the machine under the shade of a tree, ahalf-hour was spent in replacing the chain and rivet-ing in a new link. All the pins showed more or lesswear, and a new chain should have been put on inNew York, but none that would fit was to be had.292 New York to Buffalo 293 We dined at Peekskill, and had a machinist go overthe chain, riveting the heads of the pins so nonewould come out again. Nelson Hill, a mile and a half beyond Peekskill, a cUmbproved all it was said to be,—and more. In the course of the trip we had mounted hills thatwere worse, and hills that were steeper, but only inspots or for short distances; for a steady ste

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Image from page 193 of “Two thousand miles on an automobile; being a desultory narrative of a trip through New England, New York, Canada, and the West” (1902)
philadelphia travel company
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Identifier: twothousandmiles00edd
Title: Two thousand miles on an automobile; being a desultory narrative of a trip through New England, New York, Canada, and the West
Year: 1902 (1900s)
Authors: Eddy, Arthur Jerome, 1859-1920
Subjects: Eddy, Arthur Jerome, 1859-1920 Automobile travel
Publisher: Philadelphia, London, J.B. Lippincott company

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s own and use auto-mobiles ; the horses will see so many that little noticewill be taken, but the pioneers of the sport will have animenviable time. A good half-days work was required on the machine So»i/-repairsbefore starting again. The tire that had been plugged with rubber bandsweeks before in Indiana was now leaking, the aircreeping through the fabric and oozing out at severalplaces. The leak was not bad, just about enough torequire pumping every day. The extra tire that had been following along wastaken out of the express office and put on. It was atire that had been punctured and repaired at the fac-tory. It looked all right, but as it turned out the repairwas poorly made, and it would have been better toleave on the old tire, inflating it each day. A small needle-valve was worn so that it leaked;that was replaced. A stiffer spring was inserted in theintake-valve so it would not open quite so easily. Anumber of minor things were done, and every nut andbolt tried and tightened.

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THJE A.^^VaDE INN^ CHAPTER FOURTEEN LEXINGTON AND CONCORD Saturday morning-, September 7, at eleven oclock,we left the Touraine for Auburndalc, where wekmched, then to Waltham, and from there due northby what is known as Waltham Street to Lexington,striking- Massachusetts Avenue just opposite the townhall. PaidRevevf Aloug- this liistoric highway rode Paul Revere; at his heels followed the regulars of King George. Tab-lets, stones, and monuments mark every known pointof interest from East Lexington to Concord.188 Lexington and Concord 189 In Boston, at the head of Hull Street, Christ Church,the oldest church in the city, still stands, and bears atablet claiming for its steeple the credit of the signalsfor Paul Revere: but the Old North Church in NorthSquare, near which Revere lived and where he attendedservice, and from the belfry of which the lanterns werereally hung, disappeared in the conflict it initiated. Inthe winter of the siege of Boston the old meeting-house was pulled down

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Administering The Church Through A Perception Of African World View, Culture Of Societies, Religion

It is important to understand a people’s world view in order to administer to them effectively. What do we mean by world view? World view is defined as the “outlook upon the universe that is characteristic of a people. It is the picture the members of a society have of the properties and characters upon their stage of action.”

The world view of a people governs their perception of the material and spiritual universe and their response to the elements perceived within the universe. A people’s world view determined their social order and their traditional beliefs. Africans have a world view which has defined for the African a religious perception. It is no wonder, then, that we find in many of today’s churches in Africa a people living in accordance with the perceptions of two world views – that of African Traditional Religion and that of Christianity.

Are we right to say Africans have a religion of their own? Let’s firstly consider that which constitutes religion. One attempt to define religion expresses it in the following way. “Any system of beliefs, symbols and rituals that make life meaningful and intelligible”.1 E. Bolaji Idowu looks at religion as inherent in the innermost being of man and prevalent in the circumstances of life. It is always with us at every moment of life.2 John S. Mbiti describes Africans as notoriously religious. From place-to-place within the continent, each people has its own religious system with a set of beliefs and practices. The religion of the African permeates into all departments of life in such a way that it becomes difficult or impossible to always isolate beliefs and practices from life-style.3

As one travels from place-to-place within the African continent, Mbiti’s statement can readily be substantiated. One interacts with a people who have a belief system handed down by their ancestors. That belief system is inherent in the innermost being of the African. Therefore, we see a people who before the Christian era in Africa practiced their own religion.

The local church in Africa has the mission of the church to accomplish. Should it accomplish its mission through confronting and rejecting African religion or culture? Or, should it accomplish its mission through a fusion of African religion and culture which would enhance the mission of the Church and fulfill its nature while letting the word of God take preeminence?

The writer would subscribe to the last question. The last question stands in line with the approach of the mission of the first century church. Paul incorporated aspects of the people’s social framework (religion/culture) which would enhance the mission of the church while letting the revelation of God in Scripture take preeminence. It is important, therefore, for the Pastor who would administer the local church in an African context to have a perception of African world view. He does so in order to make his administering both biblically and contextually relevant to the people.

We will now go on to consider aspects of African world view and the necessity of African world view for administering the local church.

Aspects of African World View

1. View about the Universe.

Different tribal groups have myths which ascribe the creation of the universe to God. The nature and attributes of God are expressed through different names. The universe is conceived of as both visible and invisible.

There is law and order in the universe. This order is seen in the laws of nature, in moral order which governs community life, in religious order which prevents the community from offending departed ancestors or the divinities, in the mystical order which is hidden in the universe. Power emanates from the mystical order and is available to spirits and to certain human beings. Man sees himself as the center of the universe. There he utilizes the power of the universe in order to live in consonance with the universe.4

2. Belief in a Supreme Being

This Supreme Being is the Creator God. Myths among various African tribes ascribe the creation of the universe to God. The Mendes refer to him as Ngewo; the Konos as Yata; the Temnes as Kuru. The Ashanti people of Ghana call him Nyame. The Yoruba call him Olorun which means “owner of the sky.” There are various myths also which explain the extreme transcendence of God.5

3. Belief in spirits

Nature spirits are of two kinds:

i Divinities

These categories of nature spirits are conceived of as God’s agents or personification. They are associated with major phenomena of nature such as the sun, the moon, the stars, “the falling stars,” rain, storm wind, thunder and lightening.6For instance, in Yoruba tradition, the divinity sango represents the manifestation of God’s wrath; thus he is the divinity of thunder and lightening.7

ii Spirits

This category of spirits are immaterial and incorporeal beings. They may on occasions, however, assume any form if they wish to be seen. They are regarded as ubiquitous – “there is no area of the earth, no object or creature, which has not a spirit of its own.” These spirits inhabit trees, rocks, forests, lakes, streams, rivers, animals insects, mountains and hills. They are also associated with certain diseases.8

b. Ancestral Spirits

In African understanding, human life does not end in death. The dead becomes a “living dead”. Ceremonies are performed in honor of the dead and there is dependence on the dead for protection, provision and good luck. It is the view that the dead can communicate especially through dreams. The concept of “living dead” connotes that the ancestors have merely transferred from physical existence to a spiritual existence but they still remain an integral part of the human life of the living kith and kin.9

4. View of Man

In African myths of the created universe, man is put as the center of the universe. God is transcendent and he lives in the heavenly part of the universe. Man lives on the earth and he becomes the one who links the universe with its creator. African peoples consider the usefulness of the universe to man. Thus, man seeks what the world can do for him and how he can use the world for his own good.

Man is not the master of the universe. He is only the center. Forces outside of Man, in the spirit world, control the order of the universe. Consequently, Man’s primary task is to live in consonance with the forces that govern the universe through obeying the Laws of the natural order, the moral order, the religious order and the mystical order. The natural order has to do with moral laws which the supreme being has given human communities in order to maintain sanity. The religious order has to do with obeying of taboos. The mystical order has to do with the power contained in the universe.10

We have cited four broad aspects of the African world view. It is these aspects which account for the nature of the organization of traditional African communities. The organization is influenced by the underlying philosophy that the spiritual universe is a unit with the physical universe. Therefore, for the African, the spiritual universe and the material universe “intermingle and dovetail into each other so much so that it is not easy, or even necessary at times to draw a distinction or separate them”11

Practices within African World View

What practices, then, emanate from the African Philosophy of the Universe? The pivotal practice is that of communal living. In a village community, there is the Chief, the elders and families. In some cases, some families combine to form clans. Communal living is described as pivotal because it is around it that other practices revolve.

There are laws which govern the communal structure. Such laws exist to enable the community to maintain harmony with the spiritual universe and derive benefits therewith. Therefore, it is incumbent on everyone to keep the laws. The breaking of community laws or taboos is sin because it disrupts the moral and religious order.

Sin falls into two categories: Major sins and Minor sins. Major sins include violation of tribal taboos, such as the revealing of the secrets of a secret society; adultery with a neighbors or the wife of a relative, stealing; murder; and witchcraft. Minor sins include lying, cheating, trespassing on a neighbor’s property, child abuse, bitterness, disobedience, selfishness, failure to show hospitality to strangers, unkindness, petty stealing and related matters.

Major sins are dealt with at community level while minor sins are dealt with by families or friends. Severe punishments are given for major sins. We need to note that sin is not an offense against God. Rather, it is an offense against the community or against cosmic order. Therefore, forgiveness consists of the acceptance of the guilty person(s) by the community after the prescribed penalty has been fulfilled.12

Communal living incorporates several practices. Let us consider some key practices. First, there is the offering of sacrifices. Sacrifices are offered to the nature spirits (or divinities) when a taboo is violated, a sin committed, or when illness occurs in the family or bad dreams or repeated failures in endeavors. sacrifices are offered to ward off evil spirits.13 Sacrifices are offered to the ancestors as an act of propitiation or to seek help.14 Second, there is the practice of initiation. Initiation transforms the individual from an outsider in the community to an insider, it marks the dawn of transition into adulthood; it provides a medium for education on tribal heritage.15 Third, there is the practice of marriage. The family is the basic unit of the village. Marriage is considered a sacred act because God gave it as the means for maintaining an on-going flow of life on earth. He who refuses to be married is considered as committing a major offense against society and people will not deal kindly with him.16 Fourthly, there are the observance of various forms of rituals: rituals for the new-born; rituals for deceased persons; rituals for agricultural seasons et cetera.

The African philosophy of the universe and its resultant effect in the organization of communal living has led to the developing of African values. The following ten values are found among communities of African peoples.

1. Concern for sacredness of life

Myths among African tribes ascribe the creation of man to God, so life is considered God-given. Therefore, it must not be willfully and callously destroyed. In view of this, there are heavy fines and penalties for murder. Some who commit suicide are denied funeral rites.

2. A people-Centered Orientation

The people are linked to the Chief who is the divine ruler. A good Chief is one who is people-centered and that would be reflected in the way he takes care of his people. Africans place more premium on people.

3. A Sense of Community

The African does not live in isolation of the community. There is mutual support between the individual and the community – the individual contributes to the community and the community contributes to the individual. Festivals and rituals contribute to the well-being of the community and give a personal sense of belonging to the individual; thus, it is mandatory for each one to participate. The more serious crimes are those committed against society.

4. Respect for Age

Old age is a crown for the African. In traditional African society, young men do not sit in councils; rather, it is the old men. This goes with the belief that wisdom goes with age. The old folks are respected in the village.

5. A Holistic View of Reality

There is no dichotomy between the sacred and the secular in African world view; no dichotomy between individual and community; no dichotomy between the visible world and the invisible world. Reality is one unit. It cannot be compartmentalized.

6. Respect for nature and tolerance of other religions

Man is the center of the universe; yet, he does not consider himself the master. He acknowledges forces outside of himself, which are powerful. Nature offers power through herbal medicines so man respects nature by living in consonance with it. There is also tolerance towards other religions and, often time, syncretism results.

7. Respect of history

There is a strong historical consciousness in African world view. History informs the individual or community as well as instructs. A high regard is put on historical values and traditions. Such values and traditions are passed on orally.

8. Concern for Morality

There is strong regard for morals and ethics. Morals and ethics have more of a community dimension rather than a personal one. We discussed this earlier when we considered the category of sins. The motive for ethics is to maintain honor rather than bring shame to the community.

9. Concern for Power

Man seeks to have power to maintain harmony with the universe. The African recognizes his co-existence with good spirits and malevolent spirits. He seeks to obtain power for his own protection and for the protection and welfare of the community. It is in this regard that the medicine men, the diviners, mediums and seers become a legitimate entity.

10. Concern for the Now

There is no distinct future in the understanding of the African. There is the emphasis of living well now so as to continue in that same status when one dies and becomes a part of the invisible world. The invisible world is interwoven in the visible.17

We have reflected on aspects of African world view so as to give the pastor of the local church in Africa a concise understanding of he culture and people which constitute the sphere of his administration. The local church in the African context has been strongly influenced by the forms of Western Christianity brought by missionaries of the colonial and post-colonial periods. Some have created rifts between Christianity and African culture out of ignorance of the cultural values. If the local church is to be administered biblically and contextually, then an understanding of the African world view ought to be given serious consideration.

Necessity of African world View for Administering the Local Church

Is a perception of African world view necessary for administering the local church in Africa? There are several considerations which after they have been discussed will have the answer implicit in them.

1. The Nature of the Church

We should note that the Church is the ecclesia of God, the body of Christ and the Koinonia of redeeming love. The term ecclesia parallels the African understanding of community. The concept of ‘body of Christ’ parallels the understanding of people-centerdness. The term Koinonia parallels the functional aspect of body-life in the African practice of community and people-centerdness. The pastor of the local church, then, already has a people with a social structure which can enhance the mission of the Church.

2. The Mission of the Church

The Mission of the church involves warning and teaching everyone in order to present everyone perfect in Christ. Furthermore, it involves preparing God’s people for works of service.

Many have engaged in carrying out the mission of the church among African peoples but they have done so from preconceived notions. Consequently, rather than making a break-through, barriers were built. Others claim to have a perception of African world view but lack knowledge of the mission of the church. Consequently, an African Christian Church is established in which all of African traditions, rather than Christ, is the center.

The pastor’s task in administering the local church cannot produce positive results for the Kingdom of God if he lacks two key factors: (i) A perception of African world view; and (ii) An understanding of the mission of the church. In Chapters one to six we have discussed the elements involved in the administering of the local church.

3. The image of Western Christianity

Western Christianity has been equated with biblical Christianity. As a result, the cultural elements of the west have filtered along with the gospel as Western missionaries proclaimed the good news. That image exists today in the form of church liturgies, the musical instruments that are used, in the form of dressing, in the style of music, in the structure of church buildings et cetera.

If a truly biblically-centered African church is to be established in Africa, Western cultural forms which do not fit an African world view should be replaced by African thought-forms and practices.

4. The need to enhance ministry

The African has a holistic view of reality. There is a no dichotomy between sacred and secular, individual and community, visible and invisible world. He is concerned about community, visible and invisible world. He is concerned about power for protection and the keeping of consonance with the universe. Will a cold, formal Christianity achieve the objective of mission among the Africans? No! He wants a vibrant Christianity – a Christianity with the manifestations of God’s power and the guarantee of protection over him.

The pastor who administers without a perception of African world view administers a church where the felt traditional needs of the people are not met. Therefore, the people hold on to that which meets their felt needs. Christianity, as such, becomes a religion of convenience or a family heritage or a community interactive group. It bears no Christ-centered substance for the people.

5. The fostering of constructive Apologies

Jesus said, “I am the Way, the Truth and The Life, no one comes to the father except through me.” (Jn.14:6). This claim of Jesus carries two aspects to it: (i) the claim to particularity; and (ii) the claim to universality.

Particularity refers to distinctiveness. The distinctiveness of the claim is that it is through Christ alone, on the basis of His substitutionary atonement for sinners, that sinful humanity can obtain forgiveness of sin, reconciliation with God and the assurance of a future life in God’s presence.

Universality, on the other hand, refers to absoluteness. The universality of the claim denotes that the Gospel of Jesus Christ was not intended only for the geographical zone where Christ proclaimed His Gospel. Jesus’ commission to the disciples in Matthew 28:19-20 and Acts 1:8 confirms the universality of the mission of Jesus.

Therefore, in administering the local church in the African context the pastor has to engage himself in constructive apologetics. This would involve presenting the claims of Christ and the absolute authority of the word of God in the Bible over culture. But in doing this, the pastor must firstly fully understand the Biblical world view and the African world view. Then he proceeds from this standpoint of comprehensive knowledge of both world views to determine three aspects of the African world view: (i) aspects which are diametrically opposed to biblical world view; (ii) aspects which are amoral in relation to the biblical world view. and need careful interpretation; and (iii) aspects which are complementary with the biblical world view.

The pastor should be involved in administering the local church through organization, through promoting stewardship, through pastoral nurture, through mobilizing the church for evangelism and through church planting. The three aspects categorized above would greatly influence the pastor’s task in administering the local church in the African context. Constructive, contextualized apologetics cannot be fostered unless the pastor has a thorough perception of the African view of the world and the implications of that world view on African thought forms and practices.

The five aforementioned considerations give us a yes answer to the question which was posed earlier in this section. a perception of African world view is certainly necessary for administering the local church in Africa. It is unfortunate, however, that in some situations pastors do not have a comprehensive knowledge of the African world view. Consequently, they end up administering the church with a westernized version of theology. such uninformed pastors produce a congregation of misinformed people who may develop any of the following attitudes: (i) reject their cultural values in the name of a misinformed Christianity; (ii) inwardly reject the version of Christianity presented to them and firmly hold on to their African tradition in all its fullness; yet they feel compelled to remain in the church due to certain external conditions; (iii) reject the church and its teachings and continue in their African tradition.

End Notes

1Jack Redford, Planting New Churches Nashville: Broadman Press, 1978.

2Annie Gressman, The Pastor (Kenya: Evangel Publishing House, 1957), pp. 9-10.

3Ibid., p. 34

4Fred Plog and Daniel G Bates, Cultural Anthropology (New York: Alfred A Knoff, Inc., 1976), p. 226.

5E Bolaji Idowu, African Traditional Religion – “A Definition” (London: SCM Pres Ltd., 1978), p. 1.

6John S Mbiti, African Religions and Philosophy, (London: Heineman Educational Books Ltd., 1970), p.76.

7John S Mbiti, Introduction to African Religion, (London: Sheldon Press, 1976), pp. 32-40.

8Geoffry Parrinder, African Traditional Religion, (London Sheldon Press, 1976), pp.32-40.

9Mbiti, Introduction to African Religion, pp. 66-67.

10Mbiti, African Religions, and Philosophy, p.76.

11Idowu, p. 174.

12Mbiti, African Religions and Philosophy, p. 83.

13Mbiti, Introduction to African Religion, pp. 32-39

14Mbiti, African Religions and Philosophy, p. 75.

15Tolunboh Adeyemo, Salvation in African Tradition (Nairobi: Evangel Publishing House, 1979), pp. 54-56.

16Parrinder, pp. 72-73.

17Ibid., p. 62.

Dr. Leopold A. Foullah is currently Senior Lecturer and Head of the Department of Philosophy & Religious Studies, Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone, Mount Aureol, Freetown. He is also the General Superintendent of the Missionary Church of Africa, Sierra Leone Conference. He holds the following academic qualifications: Dip.Th., B.Th., M.Div., M.Th. and Ph.D (Leeds University, England). He is interested in Biblical Theology and Social Issues. He is External Examiner for both The Evangelical College of Theology (TECT), Jui and the Sierra Leone Theological College & Church Training Center in Freetown. He is married with three children.

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A Brief History of Fireplaces Down Through the Ages

Fireplaces are everywhere in today’s world and we take them for granted. But when did they begin? How have they changed over the years? And what is their status today? These are some of the questions we will set out to answer in this Brief History of Fireplaces Down Through The Ages.

A Million Years Ago

Though we may think of fireplaces (translated from Latin as a “hotbed”) as an invention that has evolved over the last few hundred years, they have been used by every culture in the world in some form or other for over 1 million years. The first fire pits dug by the caveman are considered fireplaces even though they were simple holes placed in the ground or in their caves. These “fireplaces” were used for warmth on cold days and nights along with cooking. They were also the center for the gathering of people. These fire pits were in the center of an area. This allowed for the maximum number of people to gather around and experience the heat. The problem with a fire pit in a cave or any other enclosed structure is you need a way to let the smoke escape. With the first straw huts the smoke was able to escape through the tiny opens in the straw. Or, as in the case of Indian tipis, an opening was placed in the top of the structure to let the smoke escape. This lasted for thousands of years.

1100’s

Around the 1100’s the fireplaces moved from the middle of the dwelling to a position against a wall and in this century the chimney began to come into use. About this time you start seeing fire hoods (is this time true???). At first these were purely functional but eventually took on an ornamental purpose also.

1500’s

When buildings started having second stories people wanted fireplaces on the second floor also. These early fireplaces vented the smoke out of the building horizontally and since smoke wants to move vertically it was just as likely to come back into the room. Now the real use of the chimney came into play. This device allowed the smoke to rise vertically and flow out of the building. The first and second floors would share a common chimney structure. The chimney was a critical innovation. About this time architects began to seriously study fireplace design.

1600’s

Sir Christopher Wren, one of the greatest English architects and the re-designer of St. Paul’s cathedral in London, began to design fireplaces to go with the look of the room. Under Wren fireplaces were no longer objects with no design ties to the rest of the room. Now the fireplace became an architectural feature of the room.
In 1678, near the end of his life, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, a nephew of Charles I of England, discovered that raising the frame used for holding the burning fuel allowed more air circulation. Now the air could get underneath the fire and fuel it. His design also included a switchable baffle to allow the air to flow up, then down, then up again. This meant that hot gases had longer to travel before being completely burnt thereby producing more heat.

1700’s

In the 1740s a prominent American, living in Philadelphia, named Benjamin Franklin invented a unique stove that became known as the Franklin stove. This moved the heat source back into the middle of the room which helped in heating the whole room more evenly. The stove was made out of cast iron. This continued to radiate heat long after the fire was out. The stove had more advanced features than Prince Rupert’s discovery. The Franklin stove allowed the hot gases to travel even further and this was more heat efficient. A heat vent at the top allowed the heated air to escape into the room. This provided convection along with radiated heat.
The Franklin stove had a flaw though. The smoke was vented from the bottom and air could not be drawn in. Another Philadelphian named David Rittenhouse added an L-shaped stovepipe to move the air through the fire and vent the smoke out through the chimney. This vastly improved the performance of the Franklin stove and by the end of the 1700’s the stove was being used throughout the new country.

In the late 1700s Count Rumford (Sir Benjamin Thompson, born in the United States and later moved to Bavaria) designed the first fireplace with a tall and shallow firebox. The firebox reflected heat more efficiently and provided a much better way for smoke to escape. Count Rumford’s design is considered the foundation of modern fireplaces. His design led to a decrease risk of chimney fire and allowed the chimney to be placed in the wall of the home. Before this chimney’s were designed to be kicked away from the home when they caught fire!

The industrial revolution led to large scale housing developments that brought about the standardization of fireplaces. The best known fireplace designers of this time were the Adam Brothers architects. They perfected a style of fireplace that was used for generations. It was a smaller and visually lighter fireplace and emphasis was placed on the quality of the materials.

1800’s

By this century the basic structure of the fireplace was in place. It consisted of two parts – the surround and the insert. The surround is the mantle and sides and was usually made of wood, marble and granite. The insert is the part of the fireplace where the fire is burned. This part was constructed of cast iron and sometimes decorated with various tiles. The Victorian era viewed fireplaces as adding a cozy, quaint environment to homes. A beautiful fireplace added a touch of class to the home.

Early 20th Century

After World War I the Art Deco movement focused on function over form. It emphasized modern aesthetic values and fireplaces built during this period reflected this trend. Then with the wide spread destruction of Europe caused by World War II there became a real urgency for housing and with that began the development of prefabricated electric fire and fireplaces.

Mid-20th Century

With the introduction of central heating the fireplace became more of a decorative statement in the home rather than a source of necessary heat. But the recognition of the importance of a hearth to family and home began to be acknowledged and there was a refocus on more traditional fireplace design. Today a fireplace in the home provides heat and an architectural element. In many homes the fireplace is the center for social gatherings. They are appealing since they add a certain amount of style to a home. And who doesn’t find a fire mesmerizing and relaxing. In our post industrial, modern society their purpose has evolved from providing necessary heat and cooking to a symbol of warmth and love.

Terri Young
terri.young@ToolsForFireplaces.com
Fireplace Tools at ToolsForFireplaces.com
Fireplace Tools, Fireplace Screens, Fireplace Accessories

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